10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines

What to do when your blood pressure simply won’t go down

Researchers have identified a condition called Resistant Hypertension – high blood pressure that simply doesn’t respond to medical treatment – even when a combination of drugs is used.

But a recent study from Johns Hopkins University in America shows that Resistant Hypertension can be lowered.

That’s good news when more than half the people over the age of 50 have elevated blood pressure (BP).  Unfortunately most don’t realise they have the condition, which is why it’s called

‘The silent killer’  

The health threat is obvious when a recent editorial in the Lancet calculated the risk of becoming hypertensive is greater than 90 percent for indi­viduals in developed countries!

So, if you have struggled for years to get your blood pressure under control – or are over 50 – you are wise to follow this proven way to lower BP.

Especially when a 2018 report from the National Institute of Health and Medical Research in Paris, shows that high blood pressure at 50 raises the risk of dementia in later life. ‘High’ being defined as a systolic blood pressure of 140. 

The report in the European Heart Journal explained that high blood pressure has been linked to silent mini-strokes in the brain, damage to the brain’s white matter, and restricted blood supply to the brain.

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

A 10-point plan to reduce BP naturally

Following this 10 point plan will improve your health and normalise your blood pressure, without potentially dangerous drugs – whether you are aiming to reduce your Systolic Blood Pressure to below 140 or 120.

1. Eat a DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension)

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

The eating plan known as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) is rich in whole grains, fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products. Research shows it can lower your blood pressure by up to 14 mm Hg.

The DASH diet is also an anti-inflammatory diet which will not only lower blood pressure but defend you against a range of illnesses. See this link: https://nutrishield.com/the-science/anti-inflammatory/.

Reducing inflammation reduces hypertension. Inflammation is linked to the build-up of cholesterol on arterial walls, which narrows and restricts the blood vessels, which means that the heart has to pump harder, which increases blood pressure.

2. Reduce sugar and other carbohydrates

Insulin plays an important role in high blood pressure, as many people with hypertension have insulin resistance.

Eating sug­ars and excess carbohydrates – including bread, pasta, potatoes, or rice which are metabolised as sugars – will cause your insulin levels to remain elevated, leading to increased insulin resistance. To compensate, your body generates yet more insulin. It’s a vicious circle.

Insulin encourages the uptake of magnesium, but if your body’s insulin receptors are compromised and your cells grow resistant to insulin, you will not store magnesium effectively. That’s a problem because magnesium relaxes muscles, especially those in your arterial network. If your magnesium level is too low, your blood vessels will tend to constrict rather than relax, which will raise your blood pressure.

Insulin further affects your blood pressure by encouraging your body to retain sodium. Sodium retention causes fluid retention – which in turn causes high blood pressure.

3. Increase your Omega 3 intake

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals
Rollmop and caper bruschetta from the Health Defence Cookbook

We in the West are getting too much omega-6 in our diets and far too little omega-3. Omega 6 fatty acids – found in polyunsaturated plant oils like safflower, sunflower and corn oil – are used by the body to produce hormones that promote inflammation.

Omega 3 fatty acids (from oily fish) have the opposite effect – they are used to produce hormones that reduce inflammation – which as we’ve seen helps reduce blood pressure. Omega-3 fats have another benefit – they help to re-sensitize your insulin receptors if you suffer from insulin resistance.

Omega-3 fats are typically found in flaxseed oil, walnut oil and fish, with fish being easily the best source.

4. Lose excess pounds and watch waistline measurements

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Weight loss is one of the most effective lifestyle changes for controlling blood pressure, because blood pressure often increases as weight increases. Losing just 10 pounds (4.5 kilograms) can help reduce your blood pressure by up to 5 points.

Belly fat is especially dangerous and in general:

  • Men are at risk if their waist measurement is greater than 40 inches (102 cm).
  • Women are at risk if their waist measurement is greater than 35 inches (89 cm)

5. Less sodium and more potassium

Even a small reduction in the sodium in your diet can reduce blood pressure by between 2 to 8 mm Hg. In fact only small amounts of sodium occur naturally in foods – most sodium is added during processing. So eat fewer processed foods.

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals
Sweet potatoes are high in potassium

In cooking, add less standard table salt; replace with low-sodium, high-potassium salts or other herbs and spices.

Add extra potassium to your diet which can lessen the effects of sodium on blood pressure. Good sources of potassium are bananas, avocadoes, spinach and sweet potatoes.

6. Reduce your stress

Chronic stress is an important contributor to high blood pressure. It’s not stressful events themselves that are harmful, but your feelings of inability to cope. Studies show that people with heart disease can lower their risk of subsequent cardiac problems by over 70 percent simply by learning to manage their stress.

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

So make time for this simple but effective de-stressing deep breathing exercise which can be done anywhere, and takes a short time but brings immediate results. Click to go to Instant Relaxation exercise.

You might also want to listen to some classical music. A study at the University of Florence showed that listening for 30 minutes a day for 30 days while breathing calmly, could ‘significantly’ reduce blood pressure.

7. Be physically active regularly

Regular physical activity — at least 30 minutes on most days of the week — can lower your blood pressure by an average of  7 mm Hg.

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

The best types of exercise for lowering blood pressure include walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing. Strength training also can help reduce blood pressure as it helps to reduce insulin sensitivity.

You should try to exercise to an intense level. ‘Intense’ means exerting yourself sufficiently that you are out of breath and can’t com­fortably talk to someone during your workout. Fast walking while swinging your arms is a simple way to ‘intensify’ your exercise.

8. Moderate alcohol

In small amounts, a drink can potentially lower your blood pressure by 2 to 4 mm Hg.

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

But that protective effect vanishes if you drink too much alcohol. The limit is generally one drink a day for women (and men over age 65), or two a day for men under 65. One drink equals 150ml (5 fl oz) of wine.

Drinking more than moderate amounts of alcohol can actually raise blood pressure by several points. It can also reduce the effectiveness of blood pressure medications.

Does coffee increase blood pressure? The evidence is that it may increase your BP levels short term, possibly by blocking a hormone that dilates your arteries. Drink more decaf and try hibiscus tea which has been shown to help lower BP.

9. Ensure an optimum level of vitamin D

Research shows that blood pressure is typi­cally higher in winter months than during the summer!

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

That’s because sun exposure enable your body to produce vitamin D. Lack of sunlight re­duces your vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency has been linked to insulin resistance and Metabolic Syndrome, a constellation of health problems that include elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels, obesity, and high blood pressure.

Unfortunately there is abundant evidence that almost all of us in the West are well below optimum vitamin D levels – and would benefit from a vitamin D supplement in the winter. See https://nutrishield.com/category/vitamins/vitamin-d/

10. Take a well-designed daily health supplement

No one vitamin or nutrient will make a lot of difference on its own. It is a combination that can make a real difference to blood pressure levels – and health generally.

Studies indicate that vitamins C and E can be helpful in lowering blood pressure, as can calcium and magnesium.

The optimum level of vitamin C is 500mg a day – at which level there are other benefits too – including a reduction in cataract risk. Vitamin C has been shown to increase the body’s production of nitric oxide which helps keep blood vessels dilated.

The optimum level for vitamin E is 70mg a day, ideally including all the tocopherols (d-alpha, d-beta, d-gamma and d-delta) – the “family” of vitamin E compounds that are more effective than simple d-alpha vitamin E.

Omega 3 fish oil should be included at a level of 1,000mg a day. To get that level you would need to eat oily fish 3 times a week, so a supplement is wise for most people.

To which nutrients add the powerful anti-oxidant CoQ10 which, along with vitamin B6, helps dilate blood vessels. The University of Maryland examined several studies and found that supplementing with CoQ10 over 4-12 weeks could deliver a remarkable 17 point drop in systolic levels and 10 points in diastolic.

Folic acid and the lesser known nutrient betaine are also important. They reduce the level of a blood protein called homocysteine. Homocysteine makes arteries less flexible and stiff – restricting blood flow and increasing blood pressure.

Finally polyphenols – the protective compounds in fruits and vegetables and in green tea – have a role to play in reducing inflammation and hence indirectly, blood pressure.

There is a supplement that includes all these nutrients and more. It was formulated by the former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine. It’s called NutriShield Premiumwww.nutrishield.com.


When a natural approach to preventing disease is available, it is a better choice than drugs. In the case of high blood pressure, the above 10 point plan is such a choice.


10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

This article was written by Colin Rose, a Senior Associate Member of the Royal Society of Medicine, who has been writing on science for 40 years.


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10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals
Register now for a free monthly e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive health supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Dr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from booksellers.

Read it here online or see the website www.healthdefence.com for excerpts and links to buy direct from the publisher.


10 ways to lower blood pressure naturally to meet new guidelines NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet.


References:

Ann Intern Med, Published online January 17, 2017. Guidelines.

A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control N Engl J Med 2015; 373:2103-2116 November 26, 2015 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1511939

Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) Trial: Design and Methods John B. Buse, MD, PhD The American Journal of Cardiology Volume 99, Issue 12, Supplement, 18 June 2007, Pages S21–S3

https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/dash
http://umm.edu/health/medical/altmed/supplement/coenzyme-q10
http://www.reuters.com/article/us-listening-music-idUSCOL65690420080516

Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance. Takaya J1, Higashino H, Kobayashi Y. Magnes Res. 2004 Jun;17(2):126-36.


Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO SOY AT A GLANCE

♦ SOY and its isoflavones are linked to lower breast cancer risk
♦ SOY and its isoflavones can reduce negative symptoms experienced during the menopause and help alleviate PMS symptoms for younger women
♦ SOY and its isoflavones can help lower blood pressure and improve heart health
♦ SOY and its isoflavones can contribute to stronger bones
♦ SOY and its isoflavones do NOT adversely affect male sex hormones – and may reduce prostate cancer risk


Cancer risk reduction for men and women

About 1 in 11 British women will develop breast cancer at some time in their lives. In Japan, the figure is as low as 1 in 65.

Epidemiologists – scientists who study outcome patterns in populations – believe that soy may play a crucial protective role against cancer.

The Japanese diet contains considerably more soy products than the typical Western one does, and that’s thought to protect against breast cancer – and indeed other cancers.

Soy beans are extremely rich in isoflavones, and these seem to be among the most potent anti-carcinogens of all.

Isoflavones block oestrogen, a hormone linked to an increased risk of breast and other hormone-dependent cancers. They act rather like Tamoxifen, a drug widely used to treat and prevent breast cancer.

Men who think that soy is just for women should think again; considering the high rate of prostate cancer in the West, it seems that men have just as much to gain from adding soy to their diet. And soy isoflavones do NOT adversely affect male hormones like testosterone – see below.

Soy isoflavones can help in the menopause

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIsoflavones can also mimic the effect of oestrogen in the body. Research shows that they can significantly alleviate the negative symptoms that many women go through during the menopause.

Two of the most distressing symptoms during the menopause are hot flushes [in the US, called “hot flashes”] during the day and night sweats during bedtime. They are caused because, as oestrogen levels fall, what’s called ‘vasomotor function’ deteriorates.

Blood vessels on the surface of the skin normally dilate when we are hot – allowing hot blood to move to the surface and the heat to escape. But this ‘vasomotor’ sequence is affected by the hormonal changes at menopause, causing the surface blood vessels to dilate randomly and the skin to become hot and sweaty.

It’s known that Japanese women on average suffer fewer menopausal symptoms than Western women – and they consume far more soy.  Indeed, the average Japanese intake of soy isoflavones is at least 15mg a day, compared with 1mg average in the West.

After earlier conflicting evidence that soy could ease menopausal symptoms, a 2012 meta-analysis (a literature survey of existing clinical trials) confirmed that:

Consumption of 30mg/day of soy isoflavones … reduces hot flashes by up to 50%.”

Isoflavones are phytoestrogens

The key isoflavone nutrients in soy isoflavones are genistein and daidzein. These are found in soy beans, and to a lesser extent in chick peas and lentils, and they appear to be the most potent of the phytoestrogens.

It should be noted that the oestrogen potency of phytoestrogens is estimated to be less than 1% of oestradiol, the natural oestrogen, and this probably explains why earlier studies did not clearly show isoflavones to be effective in ameliorating the menopausal symptoms. After all, hormone levels vary significantly from woman to woman.

However, a recent (2017) study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research once again confirmed that:

“Soy isoflavone improves the MRS score (a measurement of menopause symptoms) among both the perimenopausal (women transitioning into menopause) and postmenopausal women.”

A fair conclusion is that women who do not want to take hormone (replacement) therapy (HT or HRT) with oestrogen, and certainly women who have had breast cancer, should consider a supplement that includes soy isoflavones for relief of menopausal symptoms.

When NICE (the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), published guidelines in 2015 for the menopause, they confirmed there is evidence that isoflavones may relieve vasomotor symptoms.

Soy isoflavones can help with PMS

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSo far, we have concentrated on the benefits of soy isoflavones for older women. But new research has highlighted the fact that soy isoflavones – in soy or a supplement – can reduce PMS symptoms.

The National Association for Premenstrual Syndrome now states:

“Our data on this is limited; however, women in Asia, who have high levels of phytoestrogens in their diet, do have fewer PMS symptoms.”

They also recommend a diet that’s high in Omega 3, B complex, vitamin D, magnesium and calcium to help relieve PMS symptoms.

Soy isoflavones for heart health

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsLack of oestrogen after the menopause means that a woman’s risk of heart disease becomes comparable to a man’s. So it is logical that the plant oestrogens in soy isoflavones could be part of a heart health regime – for both women and men.

An article in Current Nutrition & Food Science confirmed that soy isoflavones were helpful in reducing blood pressure (see below), but that their effects were even stronger in preventing what doctors call ‘endothelial dysfunction’.

Preventing endothelial dysfunction

The endothelium is the thin lining on the inside of your blood vessels and arteries. It’s a vital part of the regular restriction and dilation that occurs over 60 times a minute as the heart beats. And all taking place within the almost 90,000 miles (!) of blood vessels that make up the arteries, veins and capillaries in the body.

The endothelium needs to be flexible and smooth to achieve healthy blood pressure and flow. In endothelial dysfunction, oxidation (free radical damage) causes lesions in this lining; LDL cholesterol sticks to these lesions and causes atherosclerosis – a build-up of fats that can then semi-calcify, all resulting in a narrowing and hardening of the arteries.

The result is atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart disease.

Isoflavones not only act as anti-oxidants to counteract excess free radical damage – they also reduce inflammation and help restore smoothness in the endothelium. A study in the European Heart Journal showed that as little as 12 weeks of isoflavone supplementation ‘reversed endothelial dysfunction’. The report concluded that:

“These findings may have important implications for the use of isoflavone for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease, on top of conventional interventions.”

Another meta-analysis of over 20 studies in Cardio-Vascular Discoveries Journal confirmed that isoflavones improved heart health, concluding that:

“Soy isoflavones had an effect of lowering blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.”

Soy isoflavones for bone health

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsLack of oestrogen also predisposes a woman to osteoporosis (bone loss). Indeed, osteoporosis means ‘porous bones’. So it’s logical that a isoflavone supplement might help preserve bone density in older women. Asian women, who consume far more soy than Western women, rarely suffer from osteoporosis after the menopause.

However, a well-conducted study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found no difference in bone density after isoflavone supplementation. But it did find that increased protein intake improves bone density.

In a way that’s not surprising, because bone density is a function of much more than oestrogen. It needs adequate calcium, vitamins A and D that support the absorption of calcium, and minerals like magnesium and zinc, plus vitamin K, which are all needed to mineralise bone.

Soy isoflavones and breast cancer

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsPopulation studies show that eating a high-soy diet is linked to a slightly reduced risk of developing breast cancer.

As we have seen, Asian women with a traditional diet high in soy, appear to be less likely to develop breast cancer. This benefit continues even when Asian women move to western cultures, where soy is less likely to be a regular part of the diet. This suggests that exposure to soy early in life provides the most protection against breast cancer.

When small amounts of soy are fed to animals, their rate of breast cancer falls by nearly 50%, as does the incidence of prostate cancer.

A survey in the specialist journal Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry confirmed these population observations concluding that:

“The majority of breast cancer cases are hormone-receptor-positive; therefore, soy isoflavones should be considered a potential anti-cancer therapeutic agent.”

Genistein appears to be the key isoflavone. Whilst it has little effect on normal cells, it appears to be a powerful inhibitor of nearly every cancer cell type examined so far.

But genistein doesn’t just inhibit cancer cells. In vitro it can cause cancer cells to revert to normal cells – which is an absolutely crucial anti-cancer property, called ‘re-differentiation’.

Genistein seems to have yet another another amazing property. It inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, and may therefore be able to starve cancers even after they have begun to grow.

Other nutrients can work with soy to increase cancer protection. If you follow a modified Mediterranean Diet with a supplement that includes vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids like lutein and lycopene, Omega 3, betaine, green tea and grapeseed extract, you will have the basis of a strong, evidence-based anti-cancer regime.

Soy isoflavones and men’s health – NO adverse effects

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIf soy isoflavones act as oestrogen mimics, are they safe for men – and do they affect testosterone levels or sex drive?

A survey of 47 studies on that subject is quite clear – they don’t adversely affect men. The summary in Fertility Journal concluded:

“The results of this meta-analysis suggest that neither soy foods nor isoflavone supplements alter measures of bioavailable T (testosterone) concentrations in men”.

But why? First of all, men produce the hormone oestrogen too – albeit at lower levels than women.

Secondly, we have seen that the hormone effect of soy isoflavone phytoestrogens is almost 100 times less than that of oestradiol, the natural form of oestrogen.

Thirdly, Asian men who consume many times more isoflavones from soy than Western men, have no lower levels of fertility and sex drive.

In fact, the International Society of Sexual Medicine answers the question: “Does consuming soy affect a man’s testosterone level?” with the simple answer: ‘NO’.

There is some evidence, however, that taking isoflavones does increase a woman’s desire levels, as lower oestrogen is linked to vaginal dryness and lower libido.  A diet rich in B complex vitamins, vitamin E, with isoflavones (plus exercise and de-stressing) does seem to deliver a libido boost – especially during and after the menopause.

Soy isoflavones and prostate cancer

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe US National Library of Medicine published a summary of all the research on the impact of soy isoflavones on prostate cancer.

They found:

“a significant reduction in PCa (Prostate Cancer) diagnosis after administration of soy/soy isoflavones. There may be support for epidemiological findings of a potential role for soy/soy isoflavones in PCa risk reduction.”

Once again, men looking to achieve a significant reduction in the risk of prostate cancer would not rely on one ingredient like soy isoflavones.

But as we just advised for women, a Modified Mediterranean Diet with a supplement that also includes vitamin D, vitamin E, carotenoids like lutein and lycopene, Omega 3, betaine, green tea and grapeseed extract, provides the basis of a strong, evidence-based anti-cancer regime.

Soy supplements

Soy isoflavones on their own are not the only or ideal health protective nutrients. NutriShield Premium is a daily comprehensive supplement containing 43 nutrients including 40mg of soy isoflavones with 28.8mg of genistein, 9.6mg of daidzein and 1.6mg of glycitin, designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

 


If you enjoyed this article, please share it with family and friends.

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Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthSoy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including soy isoflavones, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and greent tea. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Effect of soy isoflavones on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Liu XX, et al; Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Jun;22(6):463-70. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.09.006. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis. Hamilton-Reeves JM, Vazquez G, Duval SJ, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS, Messina MJ. Fertil Steril.  2010 Aug;94(3):997-1007. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.038. Epub 2009 Jun 12

Soy and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. van Die MD, Bone KM, Williams SG, Pirotta MV. BJU Int. 2014 May;113(5b):E119-30. doi: 10.1111/bju.12435.

Quantitative efficacy of soy isoflavones on menopausal hot flashes. Lujin Li, Yinghua Lv, Ling Xu, and Qingshan Zheng; Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr; 79(4): 593–604.

The Effect of Soy Isoflavones on the Menopause Rating Scale Scoring in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study. Marya Ahsan and Ayaz Khurram Mallick. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Sep; 11(9): FC13–FC16.

Endothelial Dysfunction: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Therapy, and Outcome: Hadi AR Hadi, Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2005 Sep; 1(3): 183–198.

Soy and Its Isoflavones: The Truth Behind the Science in Breast Cancer:  Crystal C. Douglas et al;  Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry; Volume 13 , Issue 8 , 2013

Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Anne M Kenny, et al; Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul; 90(1): 234–242.

Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.  Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, et al. (1999)  Am J Clin Nutr 69:727-736