Make a good diet into a GREAT diet

The big difference between adequate and optimum nutrition

Most of the food we eat will adequately support life.

But it does not necessarily sustain ideal health.

Witness the fact that UK national statistics show the average person will live the last 10 years of their life in ill health and some level of dependency.

We all want to avoid that. So what’s optimum?

Optimum nutrition

Health experts at University College London and the American Cancer Society recommend a daily intake of 10 portions of fruits and vegetables and oily fish 3 times a week!

Why such high levels?

Because at these levels, your diet has a pharmacological effect. A high level of a wide range of nutrients is continuously delivered to your cells and tissues via your bloodstream.

The nutrients ‘switch on’ positive genes, build healthy new cells, fight inflammation and help prevent DNA damage.

It’s a level that is genuinely health-protective and proven to increase healthy lifespan.

Why 5-a-day fruit and veg is not enough

Health authorities have known for some years that the optimum intake of fruits and vegetables was a lot more than 5-a-day.  But they felt that a a higher target would be too daunting and put people off even trying  – so they cut the target to 5!

The fact is that very few, even conscientious, people can manage 70 portions of a wide range of fruits and vegetables a week.

That’s when a nutritional health supplement can help – but only if it supports you reaching towards the optimum nutritional level the researchers have defined.

When you are considering a supplement, there are three important facts to remember:

1. RDAs (Recommended Daily Amounts) for vitamins and minerals are only set at a minimum ‘sufficient’ level

Taking just the RDAs will certainly prevent deficiency diseases. Vitamin C, for example, prevents scurvy and the RDA for vitamin D prevents rickets. But that is a low threshold.

Whether the RDAs are enough to sustain ideal long-term health is entirely another matter.

In the case of the B vitamins, (vital for energy), vitamin D (vital for immune function), vitamin C (vital for heart and skin health) and selenium (vital for DNA protection) there is a large body of convincing evidence that the optimum levels are much higher.

2.  Your health depends on far more than just vitamins and minerals

Research clearly shows that polyphenols and carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables are as important for health as vitamins and minerals.

Polyphenol, carotenoid and other nutritional supplements extracted and derived from plants help ensure that your bloodstream is delivering that constant supply of high quality protective nutrition to your cells.

They include

curcuminoids from turmeric
lycopene from eg. tomatoes
lutein from eg. spinach
beta carotene from eg. carrots
betaine from beets such as beetroot
catechins from green tea
procyanidins from eg. grapeseed
anthocyanidins from eg. bilberry, blueberry
isoflavones from soybeans

To those add CoEnzyme Q10 and Omega3 fish oil to help achieve the pharmacological effect.

A simple one-a-day vitamin/mineral pill cannot and does not provide these nutrients.

3. Nutrients in supplements are processed in the body in just the same way as nutrients from food

Vitamins, minerals, plant nutrients like curcumin, green tea extract, lycopene and lutein – and Omega 3 fish oil – in supplement form are processed by the body in just the same way as those nutrients would be if supplied in food.

Of course fruits and vegetables have other benefits – for example, they supply fibre, salicylates and nitrates, as well as energy and protein – so your first priority is always whole food.

But a comprehensive supplement in addition to an average 5-a-day fruit and vegetables is undoubtedly valuable to move you to an OPTIMUM level that is health protective. So use a supplement as the name implies:– to supplement and boost your intake of the nutrients we know improve long term health.

We developed the NutriShield comprehensive daily supplement to help us – and our customers – achieve an optimum daily level of nutrition that mirrors the levels found in individuals and populations (called Blue Zones) that do manage to live healthily for far longer.

To explore this topic in depth see:

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The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Simopoulos AP, Biomed Pharmacother. 2002 Oct;56(8):365-79.

Lymphocyte Lycopene Concentration and DNA Protection from Oxidative Damage Is Increased in Women after a Short Period of Tomato Consumption. Marisa Porrini and Patrizia Riso; Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2007 Aug;7(5):425-31.

Nutrition and DNA repair–potential molecular mechanisms of action. Mathers JC, Coxhead JM, Tyson J.

Enzymatic formation of apo-carotenoids from the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin by ferret carotene-9′,10′-monooxygenase. Mein JR, Dolnikowski GG, Ernst H, Russell RM, Wang XD. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011 Feb 1;506(1):109-21. Epub 2010 Nov 21.

The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin stimulates the repair of DNA oxidation damage in addition to acting as an antioxidant in human cells. Lorenzo Y, et al 2009 Feb;30(2):308-14.

Dietary carotenoid lutein protects against DNA damage and alterations of the redox status induced by cisplatin in human derived HepG2 cells. Serpeloni JM et al;  Toxicol In Vitro. Mar 2012;26(2):288-94.

A role for supplements in optimizing health: the metabolic tune-up. Review. Ames BN; Arch Biochem Biophys. 423(1): 227–34.2004.

Advanced glycation end products key players in skin aging? Paraskevi Gkogkolou and Markus Böhm; Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Jul 1; 4(3): 259–270. doi:  10.4161/derm.22028

Long-latency deficiency disease: insights from calcium and vitamin D. Robert P Heaney; 2003 American Society for Clinical Nutrition

Multivitamin-mineral use is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease mortality among women in the United States. Bailey RL et al; J Nutr. 2015 Mar;145(3):572-8. doi: 10.3945/jn.114.204743.2015 Jan 7.

The efficacy and safety of multivitamin and mineral supplement use to prevent cancer and chronic disease in adults: a systematic review for a National Institutes of Health state-of-the-science conference. Huang HY et al; Ann Intern Med. 2006 Sep 5;145(5):372-85. Epub 2006 Jul 31.

Effects of a multivitamin, mineral and herbal supplement on cognition and blood biomarkers in older men: a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Harris E et al; Hum Psychopharmacol. 2012 Jul;27(4):370-7. doi: 10.1002/hup.2236. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

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Online data

Beat air pollution with food

Big city air pollution is a killer, so defend yourself

If you work in a city, you don’t need to be told that air pollution is bad for your eyes – but it is also one of the world’s biggest killers.

Air pollution causes more than 5 million premature deaths a year worldwide, an estimated 40,000 premature deaths in the UK – and almost 10,000 in London alone. Of course, if you live or work other cities like Manchester, Leeds, Newcastle and Birmingham, you are also at risk.

The main culprit and most dangerous form is “ambient fine particulate pollution”, largely caused by diesel fumes. These particles, called PM2.5, are extremely small – about 2.5 microns across. In comparison, a human hair is about 80 microns across. Therefore, the particles are small enough to enter the lungs and bloodstream. The toxic gas nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a ‘companion killer’.

When they reach the heart, lungs and brain, these two toxins can cause chronic inflammation – which can lead to a cardiac arrest, lung cancer, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or stroke.

Worse still, the particles can impair the immune system and make you more susceptible to infections generally. And of course worsen asthma symptoms.

Studies from the USA show that living in a polluted city is associated with a 27% increase in cardiovascular death, an almost 75% increase in the risk of a heart attack, and a 28% increase in lung cancer death – compared with living in a clean air area.

The premature death figures are shocking enough, but they are only the tip of the iceberg. For every person who dies early from air pollution, many more are made ill or hospitalised.

So how can you defend yourself?

The good news

Although there are moves to reduce diesel engine use in cities, this invisible and insidious problem is not going to go away anytime soon.

However, a recent report from New York’s Columbia University found that:

  • Taking B vitamins “nearly abolished” the harmful effect of PM2.5 particles, and
  • The damaging effects of air pollution on health “are nearly reversed with four-week B-vitamin supplementation.”

The Columbia New York study

The Columbia University researchers first took healthy, non-smoking adults between 18 and 60 years of age, who lived in ‘lightly polluted urban areas’. None were taking any form of B vitamin supplements.

First, they measured heart rates, their heart rate variability (the time between heart beats) and white blood cell counts (a marker of immune status).

Results of exposure to PM2.5 pollution

They gave the subjects a placebo for four weeks. Then they exposed them for two hours to concentrated PM2.5 pollution.

They tested the subjects again and found that all their heart and immune markers had worsened. Their heart rate had increased – meaning that their hearts had to work harder. Their white blood cell count had increased by an average of 11.5%, which meant their immune systems were sensing a pathogenic attack such as an infection.

Worryingly, their heart rate variability had fallen by an average of 57%, which is a sign of blood pressure swings and that the body is under significant internal or external stress.

Results with vitamin B supplementation

The subjects were then given four-weeks of vitamin B supplements. The participants took 50 mg of vitamin B6, 2.5 mg of folic acid (vitamin B9), and 1 mg of vitamin B12 daily.

They were again exposed to PM2.5 pollution. This time, the pollution toxins had almost no effect.

Great – but why?

Why B vitamins are so effective

B vitamins are among the first vitamins depleted under stress when toxins are present.  B vitamins are important in the creation of the body’s detoxifying enzymes, which not only work in our liver, but in the lining of our airways.

B12 is a particularly powerful detoxifying nutrient – indeed a study published in Experimental Biology and Medicine found that high dose vitamin B12 can even be effective in cyanide detoxification!

However, the amounts of B vitamins used in the Columbia study were very high. For example, the level of B6 used was over 30 times the RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) and that of B12 was over 350 times the RDA!

Although the Food and Nutrition Board at the US Institute of Medicine has not recorded any adverse effects linked to excess amounts of vitamin B12, it is true that vitamin B12 can interact with certain medications. So it would be important to consult your doctor before you take such a high-dose vitamin B complex supplement.

In principle, mega doses of any single nutrient are not desirable as the body uses a wide variety of nutrients that need to be balanced to get an overall synergistic health effect. The Columbia regime also did not include vitamin B2, which is rather odd as this vitamin is known to be important in the detoxification process.

But comprehensive supplementation may be even better

Although the Columbia University results are impressive, there is another way to combat pollution with supplements that does not involve mega doses, as the B vitamins are not the only nutrients that are important in the detoxification process.

Vitamin C, for example, is a vital nutrient in helping the liver to break down and rid the body of toxins. A level of 500mg a day is optimum. The body absorbs what it needs and will excrete the excess – so any higher levels are generally wasteful.

Minerals are also important in detoxification – especially magnesium.

Supporting the lymphatic system also has a role. It is part of your circulatory system and a key part of the immune system.

The lymphatic system comprises a network of vessels that carry a clear fluid, called lymph, around the body. Lymph then transports toxic by-products from the lungs, liver and kidneys for eventual elimination.

Vitamins that support the lymphatic system include beta carotene (which converts to vitamin A as needed), vitamin C, vitamin E, and vitamin B6.

Finally, a supplement that gives specific support to the immune system would give even further protection. It should include vitamins A and  D3, curcumin, selenium, zinc and green tea extract.

The broccoli studies

Extensive research has shown that broccoli can not only boost the activity of the detoxification enzymes in the liver, but act as a cancer fighter.

The University of California Los Angeles study

Results of broccoli on smokers

Researchers at UCLA fed some smokers a large portion of broccoli every day for ten days to determine if it would affect the level of inflammation within their bodies. They chose smokers because, of course, smoking is highly inflammatory.

After the 10 days, they tested the blood of the smokers and found that levels of an important inflammatory marker, called C-Reactive protein, were reduced.

So the broccoli did reduce inflammation. But how?

To find out, the researchers took lung lining cells from the smokers and exposed them to broccoli extract in a petri dish. The cells showed a more than 100 times increase in detox-enzyme expression, compared to a non-cruciferous vegetable extract.

So the broccoli had been responsible for ‘turning on’ genes that were anti-inflammatory.

Results of broccoli on diesel fume exposure

Next, the UCLA researchers exposed two sets of volunteers (non-broccoli-eaters and broccoli-eaters) to a level of diesel fumes equal to the daily rush-hour levels on the Los Angeles freeway.

Within six hours, the number of inflammatory cells in the noses of the control group rose very significantly, and continued to rise. But inflammation levels in the group that received the “broccoli sprout extract,” went down and remained low.

Since the dose in these studies is equivalent to the consumption of just one or two servings of broccoli a day, they concluded that:

“… their study demonstrates the potential preventive and therapeutic potential of broccoli.”

For good measure, some Chinese researchers – where they have some of the worst air pollution in the world – were able to show that consuming broccoli sprouts resulted in the ability to detoxify 60% more benzene from the body than a control.  Benzene is a known human carcinogen.

What should you do to defend against the effects of air pollution?

If you live in a city, it is definitely worth increasing your intake of cruciferous vegetables (eg. kale, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, spring greens) and broccoli in particular. And up your intake of fruits like blackcurrants, raspberries and blueberries that contain high levels of protective flavonoids.

Consider a comprehensive health food supplement to boost your overall ability to counteract air pollution.

The supplement should have well above RDAs of B vitamins, but also include a balanced range of other nutrients at optimum levels that also support the lymphatic system and immune system. NutriShield is a very broad range supplement that was formulated to do that – and indeed more. See



If you enjoyed this article, please share it with family and friends. You can follow us on Facebook or Twitter for daily headline health tweets.

Visit Us On TwitterVisit Us On FacebookVisit Us On Youtube

CTA Register NewsletterAnd register now for a free monthly e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.

Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthbutton-2 supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.

Dr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from most good bookstores.

Or read chapters here FREE simply by registering your email address.

See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Combined 3 courses strip



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Heber D, Li Z, Garcia-Lloret M, Wong AM, Lee TY, Thames G, Krak M, Zhang Y, Nel A. Sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprout extract attenuates nasal allergic response to diesel exhaust particles. Food Funct. 2014 Jan;5(1):35-41.

Zhang X, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Yang G, Li H, Gao J, Cai H, Gao YT, Zheng W. Cruciferous vegetable consumption is associated with a reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Jul;94(1):240-6.

Jiang Y, Wu SH, Shu XO, Xiang YB, Ji BT, Milne GL, Cai Q, Zhang X, Gao YT, Zheng W, Yang G. Cruciferous vegetable intake is inversely correlated with circulating levels of pro-inflammatory markers in women. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2014 May;114(5):700-8.e2.

Egner PA, Chen JG, Zarth AT, Ng DK, Wang JB, Kensler KH, Jacobson LP, Muñoz A, Johnson JL, Groopman JD, Fahey JW, Talalay P, Zhu J, Chen TY, Qian GS, Carmella SG, Hecht SS, Kensler TW. Rapid and sustainable detoxication of airborne pollutants by broccoli sprout beverage: results of a randomized clinical trial in China. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2014 Aug;7(8):813-23.

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Tracy RP, Psaty BM, Macy E, Bovill EG, Cushman M, Cornell ES, Kuller LH. Lifetime smoking exposure affects the association of C-reactive protein with cardiovascular disease risk factors and subclinical disease in healthy elderly subjects. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Oct;17(10):2167-76.