Glucosamine and joint health

Definitive guide to benefits of glucosamine

Glucosamine and joint health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

 


DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO GLUCOSAMINE AT A GLANCE

♦ GLUCOSAMINE has been proven to help improve joint health, but it needs the addition of vitamins C, D3 and K2 to be truly effective
♦ GLUCOSAMINE is also helped by Omega 3 in cases of osteo-arthritis
♦ Pain relief from inflammation can be more safely addressed with curcumin and Boswellia in conjunction with GLUCOSAMINE, rather than drugs with side-effects which can become addictive
♦ There is little evidence for adding MSM or collagen to GLUCOSAMINE, but chondroitin may improve outcomes in cases of joint deterioration


The treatment of osteoarthritis and joint pain through glucosamine, or glucosamine and chondroitin combined, has been controversial.

Controversial, because although millions of people use glucosamine, many organisations – like Arthritis Research UK and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons – have been unimpressed with the effectiveness of either glucosamine or chondroitin. A BBC report concluded that exercise works just as well as glucosamine.

Meta analysis showed glucosamine effective

However, in 2015 a meta-analysis of 54 separate clinical trials on glucosamine was published in Science Reports. It covered a total of 16,427 patients and examined the effectiveness of glucosamine alone, of glucosamine plus chondroitin, and celecoxib, the leading drug that is designed to reduce inflammation and pain.

The conclusion? They were all more effective than a placebo for pain relief and joint function improvement.

All treatment options ‘showed clinically significant improvement from baseline pain’.

In terms of what the report called the ‘structure-modifying effect’, both glucosamine alone and chondroitin alone achieved a statistically significant reduction in joint space narrowing – implying that cartilage had been regrown.

So glucosamine works?

Yes – but that’s not the whole story.

You need more than glucosamine to build cartilage

Glucosamine and joint health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsGlucosamine is one of the building blocks of cartilage, ligaments and tendons. It is produced naturally by the body by combining sugars and proteins. Cartilage is the natural cushioning between joints and the lubrication between those joints is called synovial fluid.

Problems and pain arise when, over time, cartilage begins to breakdown – leading to osteo-arthritis. Osteoarthritis (OA), is the most common form of arthritis, and is a significant public health problem – affecting an average of 25% of men and somewhat more women over the age of 60 years.

The theory is that by supplying more of the glucosamine building block, it should give your body what it needs to make repairs and increase the level of cartilage. In turn, that should improve mobility and reduce pain.

But that misses the point that cartilage repair needs more than glucosamine. In particular, production of cartilage needs vitamins C and D.

In addition, researchers have noticed that people low in vitamin K2 have significantly worse cartilage loss and arthritis symptoms – because vitamin K plays an important role in both cartilage and bone mineralisation.

And vitamins C, D and K2 are missing in most glucosamine joint supplements.

The addition of Omega 3

Recent research conducted at the University of Bristol and funded by Arthritis Research UK – has also found that Omega-3-rich diets may reduce arthritis symptoms “by 50 per cent compared to a standard diet”. They noted that:

“classic early signs of the condition (ie arthritis) such as the degradation of collagen in cartilage and the loss of molecules that give it shock-absorbing properties, were both reduced with omega-3.”

The Bristol study was conducted with guinea pigs who are prone to arthritis, but the biological processes are the same in humans.

The flawed “single-nutrient” approach with glucosamine alone

We can now see why studies on glucosamine alone have historically shown such varied results. Very rarely does one nutrient have a major impact on health. The body is complex and only a range of nutrients working synergistically is likely to have a significant result.

Combine glucosamine with vitamins C, D2 and K2 plus Omega 3 and you have a formula for an effective way to start building cartilage.

But even that’s not enough!

You need safe pain relief too

Osteoarthritis is an inflammatory disease – as is any disease ending in ‘-itis’. And it’s the inflammation that ultimately causes the pain.

So, to have a comprehensive approach to arthritis, you need not just the nutrients that help rebuild cartilage – but to reduce pain whilst that rebuilding process is going on.

The problem with drugs

The pharmaceutical drug to tackle inflammatory pain is celecoxib. It is a Cox-2 inhibitor – hence the ‘coxib’ part of the name – meaning coxinhibitor.

Classified as an NSAID – a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug – Celecoxib works by blocking a pain pathway. [It blocks an enzyme called 5-lipox that makes prostaglandins and reducing prostaglandins reduces pain and swellings.]

However, there have been fears that NSAIDs could increase heart attack risk. Other side effects can include stomach upsets and headaches.

Natural and safe COX-2 pain inhibitors curcumin and boswellia

Fortunately, there are natural and safe Cox-2 pain inhibitors, the most effective being curcumin and Boswellia.

Curcumin is a constituent of the turmeric root – a very powerful natural anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant. A 2017 review of over 100 studies on curcumin in the scientific magazine Foods concluded curcumin was indeed a powerful anti-inflammatory and that:

“Turmeric extracts and curcumin can be recommended for alleviating the symptoms of arthritis, especially osteoarthritis.”

Curcumin, however, has a disadvantage in that it is not very bio-available – ie. not easily absorbed in the gut. But it can be ‘standardised’ at a high purity (over 90%) level and, if it is accompanied by natural ingredients such as piperine and lecithin, its bioavailability is increased many times.

Piperine is derived from black pepper and lecithin is an essential fat that helps regulate kidney function.

Boswellia serrata has been used for centuries for arthritis and other inflammatory conditions, as it inhibits a pro-inflammatory enzyme called 5-lipoxygenase. Arthritis sufferers have found it can bring substantial relief from swelling and stiffness in as little as 7 days.

A randomised double-blind trial (the gold standard in medical research) published in Phyto-Medicine concluded that:

“Boswellia is recommended in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee, with possible therapeutic use in other arthritis.”

Boswellia is derived from the a relative of the frankincense plant (given by the Three Wise Men!) and recently researchers have also been focusing on its anti-cancer potential.

Specifically, Boswellia includes terpenes which are strong-smelling compounds that create the perfume of incense. But in this case, the terpenes in Boswellia inhibit certain pro-inflammatory proteins (called cytokines) that can damage DNA, promote tumour growth and destroy healthy cells.

Excess pro-inflammatory cytokines are indeed the driver of inflammation generally and arthritic damage specifically. And that and an explanation of the role of prostaglandins is explored in this article by Dr Paul Clayton.

Collagen, MSM and chondroitin

The prestigious Mayo Clinic has studied joint supplements and their conclusions are that:

“Research has not found any proof that these extra ingredients (ie. chondroitin, MSM or shark cartilage) make glucosamine more effective than glucosamine alone.”

That makes sense.

MSM – No positive evidence

Methylsulfonylmethane is a naturally occurring form of sulphur that supports muscles and tendons. It is not, however, part of the process that helps rebuild cartilage.

Collagen – Very limited positive evidence

This is a protein and an essential structural component in skin, cartilage and ligaments and tendons. Indeed, it’s the main protein in the body overall.

There is some evidence that a collagen supplement can help alleviate joint pain, but it may be better – considering how abundant collagen is – to support the body’s own creation of collagen. That requires vitamin C, vitamin E, copper and zinc – all co-factors for collagen.

Some people, like Salma Hayek and Elle MacPherson, swear by bone broth which is full of collagen because they believe it makes their skin look younger.

Chondroitin – Positive evidence, as similar to glucosamine

Chondroitin, like glucosamine, is found naturally in your body. It is a vital part of cartilage, giving it elasticity by helping it retain water.

Laboratory studies have found that chondroitin can reduce the activity of enzymes and substances that break down collagen in joints. And other studies have demonstrated that it has several anti-inflammatory properties.

Arthritis UK reports that evidence of use of chondroitin as a joint supplement “… is inconsistent, but many show that it has significant clinical benefits in reducing pain and painkiller use”.

A 2017 article in the British Medical Journal reported research published online in the Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases that:

“Pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate is as effective as the widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) celecoxib for treating painful knee osteoarthritis.”

Chondroitin and glucosamine are very similar in the way they affect cartilage – which is why the major study in Science Reports already quoted concluded that you can take either glucosamine or chondroitin and get relief. Combining them may offer a small advantage.

Glucosamine does NOT cause liver damage

There have been a (very) few concerns that glucosamine might cause liver damage. But data from the numerous trials in human volunteers for both glucosamine (and chondroitin), as well as the more limited animal toxicology data, do not indicate any adverse effects of glucosamine on the liver. Glucosamine occurs naturally within the human body and no plausible mechanism by which it might cause hepatotoxicity is apparent.

Summary

Glucosamine on its own has a positive effect on joint mobility. But that is improved by the addition of vitamins D3 and K2. Adding Omega 3 to your diet or supplement regime will further improve outcomes.

In NutriShield Premium, a daily comprehensive supplement containing 43 nutrients, designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine, the daily dose includes 415mg Glucosamine, 250mg of 95% Curcuminoids (supplemented with piperine), 650mg of Omega 3 fish oil, 500mg of Vitamin C, 20mcg of Vitamin D3 and 75mcg of Vitamin K, of which 25mcg is K2.

For a full joint restorative health programme, particularly in pre-existing conditions, add more curcumin and Boswellia serrata to damp down inflammation.

In a joint supplement, make sure that the curcumin is at least 95% pure, and its bio-availability is enhanced with piperine and lecithin. That combination is in JointShield – see https://www.uni-vite.com/jointshield/whats-in-jointshield/

 


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Glucosamine and joint health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthGlucosamine and joint health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, glucosamine and soy isoflavones. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


Glucosamine and joint health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Glucosamine and joint health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Effectiveness and safety of Glucosamine, chondroitin, the two in combination, or celecoxib in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: Chao Zeng, et al: Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 16827.

Effects of glucosamine, chondroitin, or placebo in patients with osteoarthritis of hip or knee: network meta-analysis. Wandel S, Jüni P, Tendal B et al  BMJ 2010;341:c4675

Current Role of Glucosamine in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis J.-Y. Reginster; O. Bruyere; A. Neuprez. Rheumatology 2007; 46(5): 731-735.

The association between vitamin K status and knee osteoarthritis features in older adults: The Health, Aging and Body Composition Study; M. Kyla Shea et al: Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Mar; 23(3): 370–378.

Boswellia Serrata, A Potential Anti-inflammatory Agent: An Overview M. Z. Siddiqui. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2011 May-Jun; 73(3): 255–261.

Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee–a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, Khiyani R. Phytomedicine. 2003 Jan;10(1):3-7.

Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. Frank MB, BMC Complement Altern Med. 2009 Mar 18;9:6. doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-9-6.

Curcumin: A Review of Its Effects on Human Health: Susan J. Hewlings and Douglas S. Kalman. Foods. 2017 Oct; 6(10): 92.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/5-lipoxygenase-inhibitors

Chondroitin sulfate seems as effective for knee osteoarthritis as widely used celecoxib BMJ 2017; 357 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j2515 (Published 24 May 2017)

7 health positives for curcumin

Curcumin is one of the safest and most powerful bioactive plant compounds

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

 


DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO CURCUMIN AT A GLANCE

Curcumin is a remarkable nutrient. Clinical evidence shows that:

♦ CURCUMIN is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant
♦ CURCUMIN can be as effective as Prozac in lifting depression
♦ CURCUMIN contributes to heart health by supporting free flowing arteries. It may be as effective as statins for dealing with atheroma.
♦ CURCUMIN appears to have several roles in an anti-cancer regime
♦ CURCUMIN improves mobility and reduces joint pain in arthritis sufferers


It has many proven medical benefits for brain, heart, joint health and even cancer risk reduction.

Curcumin is both anti-inflammatory and a powerful anti-oxidant. Derived from the bright yellow root of turmeric, curcumin has only one disadvantage – it is not well absorbed into the bloodstream by itself.

But its bioavailability is enhanced by an astonishing 2,000% when it is ingested along with piperine which is, itself, derived from black pepper. And yet further enhanced in the presence of an oil because it is fat soluble – which is why the combination with Omega 3 in NutriShield is ideal.

Look for curcumin in supplements that is ‘standardised’ as an extract at a level of 95%, as this obviously means it has very high levels of the bioactive compound.

7 Positives for Health

1. Curcumin is a powerful anti-inflammatory

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsCurcumin has been found to block the action of a strongly pro-inflammatory molecule called NF–kB. This switches on genes that lead to inflammation. It has also been shown to lower levels of a key marker of inflammation called CRP – C-Reactive Protein.

2. Curcumin is a powerful anti-oxidant

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsCurcumin’s anti-oxidant action can slow or stop the chain reactions involved in free radical damage.

 

3. Curcumin protects the brain

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsOver and above its anti-oxidant effect as a brain neuron protector, curcumin may have another brain health role.

Studies show that curcumin can increase levels of BNDF, a hormone that is responsible for youthful brain function, and this may delay age-related brain deterioration.

4. Curcumin improves heart health by reversing the hardening and narrowing of arteries

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe endothelium is the normally smooth lining of your blood vessels including your arteries. It helps regulate blood pressure and blood clotting and is involved in the inflammatory response. “Endothelial dysfunction” is a cause of atheroma – the dangerous narrowing and eventual hardening of the arteries.

But atheroma and endothelial dysfunction are reversible – and an 8 week study showed that curcumin was as effective as the commonly prescribed statin, atorvastatin.

5. Curcumin can ease pain and increase mobility in arthritis

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsStudies show that it inhibits a pain enzyme called Cox-2 – a mode of action rather like NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs).

But the advantage of curcumin is that it is natural with no side effects.  Over 20 studies confirm that it supports joint mobility and pain relief.

6. Curcumin has multiple roles in combating cancer

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsA significant number of studies show that curcumin exerts what one researcher calls “multiple different suppressive effects on human cancers including breast cancer.”

The effects include inhibiting blood supplies to tumours, slowing their spread and even initiating the death of cancer cells.

7. Curcumin can slow ageing by preventing the shortening of telomeres

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsTelomeres are the protective little caps at the end of double-stranded molecules of DNA. Each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter. Once they get too short, the cell can no longer divide, and it becomes inactive and dies. The shortening of telomeres is a known marker of ageing.

Curcumin has been shown in several studies to prevent the shortening of telomeres.

Supplement with curcumin

Read more detail about the health benefits of curcumin below. There’s no question you’ll want to include it in your daily supplement regime.

There are 250mg of 95% Curcuminoid extract in every daypack of NutriShield Essentials and NutriShield Premium, supplements designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.


More on all these health benefits of curcumin

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Anti-inflammatory

The latest medical evidence is clear – chronic (ie. continuous) inflammation within tissues and cells is a key driver of almost every degenerative disease.

Inflammation is certainly a factor in heart disease, in metabolic syndrome, in Alzheimer’s, in obesity and diabetes, in arthritis and in certain cancers which start from sites of inflammation and makes the spread of cancer more likely.

So anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients should be in the front-line of your preventative health strategy.

Curcumin has been found to block the action of a strongly pro-inflammatory molecule called NF–kB. This switches on genes that lead to inflammation. It has also been shown to lower levels of a key marker of inflammation called CRP or C-Reactive Protein.

Anti-oxidant

Oxidative damage occurs when our bodies metabolise oxygen and create energy. So some oxidation is inevitable. But the process also creates free radicals which react with and damage cells, DNA, mitochondria and fatty acids in the body.

If the body has excess free radicals and insufficient anti-oxidants to neutralise those free radicals, then oxidative damage occurs.

In everyday life, oxidative or free radical damage is the process by which fat goes rancid and apples turn brown.

In the body, oxidative damage manifests itself eventually as:

  • Fatigue and premature ageing (via damage to mitochondria – the cell “energy factories”)
  • Wrinkled skin
  • A trigger for cancer (via damage to DNA)
  • Brain ageing and neurogenerative disease such as senile dementia (via damage to neurons)
  • Atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of arteries)
  • Degenerative eye disease – since the eye is an organ with intense oxidative activity and needs high levels of anti-oxidants to protect its unsaturated fatty acids.

An anti-oxidant can slow or stop the chain reactions involved in free radical damage.

As a powerful anti-oxidant, curcumin should definitely be in your supplement, along with at least 500mg of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, beta-carotene and CoQ10. All these, too, are anti-oxidants.

One well referenced study on free radicals and disease summarised the role of anti-oxidants.

The human species is not genetically adapted to survive past middle age, and it appears that anti-oxidant supplementation of our diet is needed to ensure a more healthy elderly population’.

Improves brain function

Over and above its role as an anti-oxidant and brain neuron protector, curcumin may have another brain health role.

A hormone called Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) is responsible for youthful brain function. Unfortunately this normally declines with age and appears to be a factor in depression and reduced cognitive function.  But studies show that curcumin can increase levels of BNDF and thereby may be effective in delaying age-related brain deterioration.

In addition, curcumin (so far only in laboratory tests) has been shown to be able to pass into the brain and help increase the clearance of the beta amyloid plaque cells that characterise Alzheimer’s patients’ brains.

One of the symptoms of inflammation in the brain is what is commonly called ‘brain fog’ – poorer concentration, mood malaise and memory impairment.

The Journal of Psychopharmacology, reporting on a curcumin study on healthy older adults, stated that:

‘One hour after administration, curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better.’

In another 6-week study, published in the US National Library of Medicine, curcumin at 1,000 mg a day was found to be as effective as the anti-depressant Prozac in reducing symptoms of depression, but better tolerated.

Improves heart health

The endothelium is the normally smooth lining of your blood vessels including your arteries. It helps regulate your blood pressure, and blood clotting and is involved in the inflammatory response. What’s called endothelial dysfunction is a cause of atheroma – the dangerous narrowing and eventual hardening of the arteries.

But atheroma and endothelial dysfunction are reversible – and an 8 week study showed that curcumin was as effective as the commonly prescribed statin, atorvastatin.

This specific function of curcumin amplifies the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of curcumin on heart health.

A presenter at the American Heart Association’s Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Annual Conference, in announcing his study results, was reported to say that:

“… curcumin supports clean, free-flowing arteries. Patients taking this pill saw 26% of gunk unclogged from their arteries.”

Although the words are hardly couched in the normal dry scientific language, it does capture the huge interest that health researchers now have in curcumin. In fact, one article claims that curcumin may have over 500 health benefits. That seems exaggerated, but the benefits on this page are well documented.

Alleviates the symptoms of arthritis

Arthritis is an inflammatory disease – as are all diseases ending in ‘-itis’.

So you would expect that curcumin could have a role in any natural arthritis treatment – and it does. Studies show that it inhibits a pain enzyme called Cox-2 – a mode of action rather like NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs). But the advantage of curcumin is that it is natural with no side effects.  Over 20 studies confirm that it supports joint mobility and pain relief.

One summary study in the Journal of Alternative Medicine Review reported:

‘People taking curcumin saw pain scores drop by 60% … and stiffness scores drop by 73%.

But if you were taking curcumin as a supplement in a case of arthritis, you would ideally add Glucosamine, and co-factor vitamins D and K – as in JointShield.

Curcumin/turmeric can also be used topically to treat strains and muscle aches. Mix to a paste with a little olive oil and apply like an ointment.

Multiple roles in cancer risk reduction

For cancer to grow and form a tumour, it must develop a supply of blood vessels – a process called angiogenesis. That in turn supports metastasis or the spread on cancer cells.

A significant number of peer reviewed studies show that curcumin exerts what one researcher calls “multiple different suppressive effects on human cancers including breast cancer.”

The effects include inhibiting blood supplies to tumours, the slowing of spread and even the initiation of the death of cancer cells.

To date most of these studies have been animal studies or done on human cells in the laboratory. But a study in the Journal of Cell Biochemistry was able to state:

‘We conclude that telomerase inhibitory effects of curcumin underscore its use in adjuvant cancer therapy.’

We do know that many health researchers are using curcumin themselves.

Curcumin could be part of an anti-ageing programme

The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin make it a candidate for a scientifically based approach to slowing ageing, because both inflammation and oxidative damage are deeply involved in ageing.

There is another effect noted in the study quoted above. Curcumin can prevent the shortening of telomeres.

Telomeres are the protective little caps at the end of double-stranded molecules of DNA called chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter. Once they get too short, the cell can no longer divide, and it becomes inactive and dies. The shortening of telomeres is a known marker of ageing.

So it’s hypothesised that slowing or preventing the shortening of telomeres can slow biological ageing. Omega 3 and vitamin D are other natural nutrients that have been shown to help slow telomere shortening, as have weight loss and regular exercise.

Summary

If you are a nutritional supplement user, then curcumin should be in your supplement.

But so should plant derived micro-nutrients like green tea and grapeseed extract and Omega 3. And if you are over 50 when the body needs more nutrients but absorbs less, then add at least carotenoids like lutein, lycopene and beta carotene and CoQ10.

They all have solid scientific backing as helping to prevent long-term health problems whilst  contributing to noticeably improved short term energy and ‘feel-good’ status.

They are all included in NutriShield, a supplement designed by Dr Paul Clayton former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.

 


If you enjoyed this article, please share it with family and friends. You can follow us on Facebook or Twitter for daily headline health tweets.


7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive health7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients including polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants like turmeric. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. 7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases:Bharat B.Aggarwal, Kuzhuvelil B.Harikumar; The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology Volume 41, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 40-59

Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Shoba G1, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Planta Med. 1998 May;64(4):353-6.

Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Libby P. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26;420(6917):868-74.

Inflammation and cancer. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26;420(6917):860-7.

The Nuclear Factor NF-κB Pathway in Inflammation; Toby Lawrence; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Dec; 1(6): a001651.

Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). Chainani-Wu N.  J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Feb;9(1):161-8.

The role of free radicals in disease. Florence TM. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1995 Feb;23(1):3-7.

The role of mitochondrial DNA mutations and free radicals in disease and ageing. Lagouge M, Larsson NG. J Intern Med. 2013 Jun;273(6):529-43. doi: 10.1111/joim.12055. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor. Devin K Binder and Helen E Scharfman; Growth Factors. 2004 Sep; 22(3): 123–131.

Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB; Behavioural Brain Research Volume 239, 15 February 2013, Pages 27-30

Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Zhang L, Fiala M, Cashman J, Sayre J, Espinosa A, Mahanian M, Zaghi J, Badmaev V, Graves MC, Bernard G, Rosenthal M. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Sep;10(1):1-7.

Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population; Katherine HM Cox et al, Journal of Phschpharmacology

Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Sanmukhani J, et al: Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):579-85. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5025. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Effect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week study. Usharani P, Mateen AA, Naidu MU, Raju YS, Chandra N. Drugs R D. 2008;9(4):243-50.

Curcumin and Cancer Cells: How Many Ways Can Curry Kill Tumor Cells Selectively? Jayaraj Ravindran, Sahdeo Prasad, and Bharat B. Aggarwal AAPS J. 2009 Sep; 11(3): 495–510.

Curcumin inhibits proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different cancers through interaction with multiple cell signalling proteins. Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Preetha Anand, Bharat B. Aggarwal. Cancer Letters October 8, 2008. Volume 269, Issue 2, Pages 199–225

Curcumin exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells; Zhi‐Ming Shao et al; International Journal of Cancer Volume 98, Issue 2

Curcumin inhibits telomerase and induces telomere shortening and apoptosis in brain tumour cells. Khaw AK, Hande MP, Kalthur G, Hande MP.; J Cell Biochem. 2013 Jun;114(6):1257-70. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24466.