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Yogurt for gut health ☹ – prefer probiotic supplements

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


Yogurts don’t have enough probiotics to deliver gut health benefits

Yogurts in supermarkets do not contain anywhere near enough probiotics – ‘friendly bacteria’ – to have the health benefits you might be looking for.

That’s the conclusion of a major study from University of Toronto’s Department of Nutritional Sciences. As lead researcher Mary Scourboutakos puts it:

“In some cases, a person would have to eat up to 25 servings of yogurt a day in order to reap the promised benefits, which is completely unrealistic.”

Yet probiotics themselves have been shown to improve:

  • Digestion
  • Medical inflammatory conditions like irritable bowel syndrome
  • Immune function
  • and the absorption of nutrients from your diet – which is especially important in the over 60s.

Probiotics can also reduce flatulence, bloating, stomach discomfort, constipation and diarrhoea caused by C difficile or the use of antibiotics.

They may even help reduce depression via the recognised gut-brain pathway.

Probiotics have a good track record of helping clear yeast infections and candida.

Some researchers even claim that certain strains can help with weight management, but the evidence here is limited.

Gut health is vital to a strong immune system

What we can definitely say is that gut health is vital to a strong immune system, because 70% of your immune function is controlled in your gut.

By crowding out bad bacteria – pathogens – probiotics can improve your overall health and, for example, restore gut balance after a course of antibiotics.

Certain strains also prompt enzyme activity which can help neutralise carcinogens and help eradicate the pathogen Helicobacter pylori – which can lead to cancerous ulcers.

All of which explains why the study of the microbiome – your intestinal flora – is now one of the hottest topics in medicine.

Why don’t yogurts deliver these benefits?

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe simple fact is that the level or dose of probiotics in most major brands is many times below the level that would benefit you. Or worse – 25 times lower than were in the studies originally conducted by the agro-food giants and on which their claims are based!

Toronto University again:

 “Our study (done on 92 supermarket yogurts) showed there’s a gap between the health benefits found in clinical trials and the benefits that consumers can expect to receive from the probiotic food products (yogurts) in the marketplace.”

So which are best for gut health – yogurts or probiotic supplements?

To answer that question, here are some key yogurt and probiotic facts.

Yogurt and probiotic facts

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsMany yogurts don’t even qualify as probiotics. Virtually all yogurts are made with a combination of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and/or Streptococcus thermophilus, but they are only there to kick-start the fermentation process, NOT in sufficient amounts to be classified as a probiotic food.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSo a pack statement ‘made with yogurt cultures’ doesn’t mean it’s going to work like a probiotic. All that means is that the manufacturing process started with live cultures – as it must in order to convert milk to the fermented product yogurt.

Many supermarket yogurts are heat-treated to increase shelf life, but that kills good and bad bacteria alike. So these yogurts don’t even contain live bacteria by the end of their manufacturing process.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSome yogurt manufacturers do add probiotic strains back to their products after sterilisation. In the UK, there are no standards for probiotics, but in the USA, to be called a probiotic food or to claim ‘promotes healthy gut flora’, a yogurt must contain at least one billion live colony-forming units (ie. active probiotic cultures) of at least one recognised probiotic species per serving.

But unlike probiotic supplements, very few yogurts declare a precise level of colony-forming units. So it’s difficult to tell what you are actually getting – and it’s almost certainly less than 1 billion.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe general scientific consensus is that the more good bacteria there are in your gut, the harder it is for bad bacteria to flourish and cause problems. It appears that you need at least 7 billion probiotic bacteria per serving to get a health benefit.This number should be comprised of multiple strains – because different strains colonise in different parts of your gastro-intestinal tract and each has a specific health benefit.

In addition, there is evidence that strains work together to create a beneficial synergistic effect. For example, Bifidobacterium lactis has been shown to have a greater effect when accompanied by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsYogurts taste great and are still a valuable source of protein, calcium, magnesium and zinc, so they are a healthy food. Moreover, research published in the specialist Journal Translational Medicine indicates that yogurt does beneficially metabolise starches in fruits, grains and vegetables. But even if they state ‘contains active live cultures’, very few contain enough probiotic cultures in high enough doses to deliver the specific benefits you can achieve with a supplement.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe only caveat to calling yogurts ‘healthy’ is that some brands – especially and unfortunately marketed to homes with children – contain far too much added fructose, corn syrup or sugar, which can actually increase the level of bad bacteria in the gut!

So many yogurts are more of a sweet dessert than a health food. Indeed, Cornucopia, a US food and farm policy research group, found that flavoured varieties of certain brands of yogurt (eg. strawberry) contained no actual fruit, and included total sugars that rival those in a chocolate bar.

Cornucopia have filed a formal complaint against several yogurt companies with the FDA, and women should note that sugars can feed candida.

So: Are probiotic supplements better than yogurt for gut health?

Probiotic supplements don’t include protein or vitamins and minerals. But if you want the health benefits that researchers say a probiotic can deliver, then a probiotic supplement offers a much clearer way to achieve those benefits than a supermarket yogurt.

So the answer is yes.

But there are guidelines for choosing the best probiotic supplement.

1. It should have at least 7 billion ‘colony-forming’ bacteria per capsule.

2. It should have multiple strains – at least five to seven. Because different strains deliver different benefits.

For example, Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to help reduce cholesterol levels, while Lactobacillus plantarum has proven effectiveness in helping reduce the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been shown to help reduce inflammation within brain neurons – and thereby ease depression.

Other strains like Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum have been shown to improve immune function, and improve vaginal health.

Choosing a supplement that contains the right balance of strains to help with your particular health issues is the key to getting the biggest benefit from a probiotic supplement. There’s a helpful report at

https://uni-vite.com/microbiotic/how-probiotics-improve-your-health-report/

3. The strains in your probiotic supplement must have been researched to be hardy.

The stomach is very acidic and probiotics need to be able to survive long enough to reach and colonise various parts of your intestine to have their beneficial effects.

The University of Nebraska has a world class centre for probiotic research. It identifies two exceptionally resistant strains – being Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bacillus coagulans ProDura.

4. Probiotics are live microbes. Their ‘food’ is prebiotics – sources include leeks, onions, oats and garlic. A well formulated probiotic should include some prebiotics to ‘kick-start’ their colonisation of the gut.

Check probiotic supplement labels

A final point.  As noted above, the US National Yogurt Association requires 1 billion cultures per serving to be classified as a probiotic yogurt. The UK does have a code of practice for yogurts, but this does not include any definition of probiotic standards.

In contrast, probiotic supplements can be much more worthwhile, but check labels carefully.

The UK multi-strain supplement brand Microbiotic Plus contains 7.5 billion cultures per vegan dairy-free capsule or serving – some 700% of the US threshold level.

Conclusion – yogurt AND probiotic supplements

Keep eating your yogurt for its other benefits – ideally traditionally made, organic and live or in forms like kefir.

But to get the real benefits of probiotics, look at scientifically formulated probiotic supplements.

 


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Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsYogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsYogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

You can follow us on Facebook or Twitter for daily headline health tweets.


Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthYogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including soy isoflavones, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and greent tea. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


MicroBiotic Plus is a vegan probiotic/prebiotic supplement Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Mineralscontaining 7.5 billion friendly bacteria of 7 different hardy strains including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans, plus natural plant prebiotics. See more detail by clicking on the button.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products Mary J. Scourboutakos et al Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 400; doi:3390/nu9040400

Expert consensus document – The international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.  Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2014, 11, 506–514.

Probiotics, gut microbiota and health. Butel MJ. Mal. Infect. 2014, 44, 1–8.

Probiotics: Delineation of prophylactic and therapeutic benefits.  Med. Food 2009, 12, 219–235.

Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. World Health Organization. Available online: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/en/probiotic_guidelines.pdf

Metabolism and biochemical characteristics of yogurt bacteria. A review. A Zourari, JP Accolas, MJ Desmazeaud. Le Lait. INRA Editions, 1992, 72 (1), 1-34.

Benefits of Homemade Yogurt Versus Commercial. Mercola, Joseph. Organic Consumers Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 July 2017.

Enhancing immunity by dietary consumption of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (Bifidobacterium lactis HN019):optimization and definition of cellular immune responses. Chiang BL, Sheih YH, Wang LH, Liao CK, Gill HS (2000). Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 849–855.

Irritable bowel syndrome in the United States: Prevalence, symptoms patterns and impact. Hungin APS, Chang L, Locke GR et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1365–1375.

http://www.dairyuk.org/media-area/resources/item/yogurt-cop

 

 

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO SOY AT A GLANCE

♦ SOY and its isoflavones are linked to lower breast cancer risk
♦ SOY and its isoflavones can reduce negative symptoms experienced during the menopause and help alleviate PMS symptoms for younger women
♦ SOY and its isoflavones can help lower blood pressure and improve heart health
♦ SOY and its isoflavones can contribute to stronger bones
♦ SOY and its isoflavones do NOT adversely affect male sex hormones – and may reduce prostate cancer risk


Cancer risk reduction for men and women

About 1 in 11 British women will develop breast cancer at some time in their lives. In Japan, the figure is as low as 1 in 65.

Epidemiologists – scientists who study outcome patterns in populations – believe that soy may play a crucial protective role against cancer.

The Japanese diet contains considerably more soy products than the typical Western one does, and that’s thought to protect against breast cancer – and indeed other cancers.

Soy beans are extremely rich in isoflavones, and these seem to be among the most potent anti-carcinogens of all.

Isoflavones block oestrogen, a hormone linked to an increased risk of breast and other hormone-dependent cancers. They act rather like Tamoxifen, a drug widely used to treat and prevent breast cancer.

Men who think that soy is just for women should think again; considering the high rate of prostate cancer in the West, it seems that men have just as much to gain from adding soy to their diet. And soy isoflavones do NOT adversely affect male hormones like testosterone – see below.

Soy isoflavones can help in the menopause

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIsoflavones can also mimic the effect of oestrogen in the body. Research shows that they can significantly alleviate the negative symptoms that many women go through during the menopause.

Two of the most distressing symptoms during the menopause are hot flushes [in the US, called “hot flashes”] during the day and night sweats during bedtime. They are caused because, as oestrogen levels fall, what’s called ‘vasomotor function’ deteriorates.

Blood vessels on the surface of the skin normally dilate when we are hot – allowing hot blood to move to the surface and the heat to escape. But this ‘vasomotor’ sequence is affected by the hormonal changes at menopause, causing the surface blood vessels to dilate randomly and the skin to become hot and sweaty.

It’s known that Japanese women on average suffer fewer menopausal symptoms than Western women – and they consume far more soy.  Indeed, the average Japanese intake of soy isoflavones is at least 15mg a day, compared with 1mg average in the West.

After earlier conflicting evidence that soy could ease menopausal symptoms, a 2012 meta-analysis (a literature survey of existing clinical trials) confirmed that:

Consumption of 30mg/day of soy isoflavones … reduces hot flashes by up to 50%.”

Isoflavones are phytoestrogens

The key isoflavone nutrients in soy isoflavones are genistein and daidzein. These are found in soy beans, and to a lesser extent in chick peas and lentils, and they appear to be the most potent of the phytoestrogens.

It should be noted that the oestrogen potency of phytoestrogens is estimated to be less than 1% of oestradiol, the natural oestrogen, and this probably explains why earlier studies did not clearly show isoflavones to be effective in ameliorating the menopausal symptoms. After all, hormone levels vary significantly from woman to woman.

However, a recent (2017) study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research once again confirmed that:

“Soy isoflavone improves the MRS score (a measurement of menopause symptoms) among both the perimenopausal (women transitioning into menopause) and postmenopausal women.”

A fair conclusion is that women who do not want to take hormone (replacement) therapy (HT or HRT) with oestrogen, and certainly women who have had breast cancer, should consider a supplement that includes soy isoflavones for relief of menopausal symptoms.

When NICE (the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence), published guidelines in 2015 for the menopause, they confirmed there is evidence that isoflavones may relieve vasomotor symptoms.

Soy isoflavones can help with PMS

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSo far, we have concentrated on the benefits of soy isoflavones for older women. But new research has highlighted the fact that soy isoflavones – in soy or a supplement – can reduce PMS symptoms.

The National Association for Premenstrual Syndrome now states:

“Our data on this is limited; however, women in Asia, who have high levels of phytoestrogens in their diet, do have fewer PMS symptoms.”

They also recommend a diet that’s high in Omega 3, B complex, vitamin D, magnesium and calcium to help relieve PMS symptoms.

Soy isoflavones for heart health

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsLack of oestrogen after the menopause means that a woman’s risk of heart disease becomes comparable to a man’s. So it is logical that the plant oestrogens in soy isoflavones could be part of a heart health regime – for both women and men.

An article in Current Nutrition & Food Science confirmed that soy isoflavones were helpful in reducing blood pressure (see below), but that their effects were even stronger in preventing what doctors call ‘endothelial dysfunction’.

Preventing endothelial dysfunction

The endothelium is the thin lining on the inside of your blood vessels and arteries. It’s a vital part of the regular restriction and dilation that occurs over 60 times a minute as the heart beats. And all taking place within the almost 90,000 miles (!) of blood vessels that make up the arteries, veins and capillaries in the body.

The endothelium needs to be flexible and smooth to achieve healthy blood pressure and flow. In endothelial dysfunction, oxidation (free radical damage) causes lesions in this lining; LDL cholesterol sticks to these lesions and causes atherosclerosis – a build-up of fats that can then semi-calcify, all resulting in a narrowing and hardening of the arteries.

The result is atherosclerosis, hypertension and heart disease.

Isoflavones not only act as anti-oxidants to counteract excess free radical damage – they also reduce inflammation and help restore smoothness in the endothelium. A study in the European Heart Journal showed that as little as 12 weeks of isoflavone supplementation ‘reversed endothelial dysfunction’. The report concluded that:

“These findings may have important implications for the use of isoflavone for secondary prevention in patients with cardiovascular disease, on top of conventional interventions.”

Another meta-analysis of over 20 studies in Cardio-Vascular Discoveries Journal confirmed that isoflavones improved heart health, concluding that:

“Soy isoflavones had an effect of lowering blood pressure in hypertensive subjects.”

Soy isoflavones for bone health

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsLack of oestrogen also predisposes a woman to osteoporosis (bone loss). Indeed, osteoporosis means ‘porous bones’. So it’s logical that a isoflavone supplement might help preserve bone density in older women. Asian women, who consume far more soy than Western women, rarely suffer from osteoporosis after the menopause.

However, a well-conducted study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found no difference in bone density after isoflavone supplementation. But it did find that increased protein intake improves bone density.

In a way that’s not surprising, because bone density is a function of much more than oestrogen. It needs adequate calcium, vitamins A and D that support the absorption of calcium, and minerals like magnesium and zinc, plus vitamin K, which are all needed to mineralise bone.

Soy isoflavones and breast cancer

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsPopulation studies show that eating a high-soy diet is linked to a slightly reduced risk of developing breast cancer.

As we have seen, Asian women with a traditional diet high in soy, appear to be less likely to develop breast cancer. This benefit continues even when Asian women move to western cultures, where soy is less likely to be a regular part of the diet. This suggests that exposure to soy early in life provides the most protection against breast cancer.

When small amounts of soy are fed to animals, their rate of breast cancer falls by nearly 50%, as does the incidence of prostate cancer.

A survey in the specialist journal Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry confirmed these population observations concluding that:

“The majority of breast cancer cases are hormone-receptor-positive; therefore, soy isoflavones should be considered a potential anti-cancer therapeutic agent.”

Genistein appears to be the key isoflavone. Whilst it has little effect on normal cells, it appears to be a powerful inhibitor of nearly every cancer cell type examined so far.

But genistein doesn’t just inhibit cancer cells. In vitro it can cause cancer cells to revert to normal cells – which is an absolutely crucial anti-cancer property, called ‘re-differentiation’.

Genistein seems to have yet another another amazing property. It inhibits the growth of new blood vessels, and may therefore be able to starve cancers even after they have begun to grow.

Other nutrients can work with soy to increase cancer protection. If you follow a modified Mediterranean Diet with a supplement that includes vitamin D, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids like lutein and lycopene, Omega 3, betaine, green tea and grapeseed extract, you will have the basis of a strong, evidence-based anti-cancer regime.

Soy isoflavones and men’s health – NO adverse effects

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIf soy isoflavones act as oestrogen mimics, are they safe for men – and do they affect testosterone levels or sex drive?

A survey of 47 studies on that subject is quite clear – they don’t adversely affect men. The summary in Fertility Journal concluded:

“The results of this meta-analysis suggest that neither soy foods nor isoflavone supplements alter measures of bioavailable T (testosterone) concentrations in men”.

But why? First of all, men produce the hormone oestrogen too – albeit at lower levels than women.

Secondly, we have seen that the hormone effect of soy isoflavone phytoestrogens is almost 100 times less than that of oestradiol, the natural form of oestrogen.

Thirdly, Asian men who consume many times more isoflavones from soy than Western men, have no lower levels of fertility and sex drive.

In fact, the International Society of Sexual Medicine answers the question: “Does consuming soy affect a man’s testosterone level?” with the simple answer: ‘NO’.

There is some evidence, however, that taking isoflavones does increase a woman’s desire levels, as lower oestrogen is linked to vaginal dryness and lower libido.  A diet rich in B complex vitamins, vitamin E, with isoflavones (plus exercise and de-stressing) does seem to deliver a libido boost – especially during and after the menopause.

Soy isoflavones and prostate cancer

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe US National Library of Medicine published a summary of all the research on the impact of soy isoflavones on prostate cancer.

They found:

“a significant reduction in PCa (Prostate Cancer) diagnosis after administration of soy/soy isoflavones. There may be support for epidemiological findings of a potential role for soy/soy isoflavones in PCa risk reduction.”

Once again, men looking to achieve a significant reduction in the risk of prostate cancer would not rely on one ingredient like soy isoflavones.

But as we just advised for women, a Modified Mediterranean Diet with a supplement that also includes vitamin D, vitamin E, carotenoids like lutein and lycopene, Omega 3, betaine, green tea and grapeseed extract, provides the basis of a strong, evidence-based anti-cancer regime.

Soy supplements

Soy isoflavones on their own are not the only or ideal health protective nutrients. NutriShield Premium is a daily comprehensive supplement containing 43 nutrients including 40mg of soy isoflavones with 28.8mg of genistein, 9.6mg of daidzein and 1.6mg of glycitin, designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

 


If you enjoyed this article, please share it with family and friends.

Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSoy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSoy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

You can follow us on Facebook or Twitter for daily headline health tweets.


Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthSoy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including soy isoflavones, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and greent tea. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Soy anti-cancer, good for menopause, heart and bone health NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Effect of soy isoflavones on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Liu XX, et al; Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2012 Jun;22(6):463-70. doi: 10.1016/j.numecd.2010.09.006. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

Clinical studies show no effects of soy protein or isoflavones on reproductive hormones in men: results of a meta-analysis. Hamilton-Reeves JM, Vazquez G, Duval SJ, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS, Messina MJ. Fertil Steril.  2010 Aug;94(3):997-1007. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.04.038. Epub 2009 Jun 12

Soy and soy isoflavones in prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. van Die MD, Bone KM, Williams SG, Pirotta MV. BJU Int. 2014 May;113(5b):E119-30. doi: 10.1111/bju.12435.

Quantitative efficacy of soy isoflavones on menopausal hot flashes. Lujin Li, Yinghua Lv, Ling Xu, and Qingshan Zheng; Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2015 Apr; 79(4): 593–604.

The Effect of Soy Isoflavones on the Menopause Rating Scale Scoring in Perimenopausal and Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study. Marya Ahsan and Ayaz Khurram Mallick. J Clin Diagn Res. 2017 Sep; 11(9): FC13–FC16.

Endothelial Dysfunction: Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Therapy, and Outcome: Hadi AR Hadi, Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2005 Sep; 1(3): 183–198.

Soy and Its Isoflavones: The Truth Behind the Science in Breast Cancer:  Crystal C. Douglas et al;  Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry; Volume 13 , Issue 8 , 2013

Soy proteins and isoflavones affect bone mineral density in older women: a randomized controlled trial. Anne M Kenny, et al; Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul; 90(1): 234–242.

Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.  Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, et al. (1999)  Am J Clin Nutr 69:727-736