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Over 50? The health facts every woman should know

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


Over 50, women’s body changes bring health challenges

From about age 50 onwards, changes in a woman’s body bring health challenges you do need to address.

The good news is that – if you do – your energy and health can be better than ever.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsReduced oestrogen can lead to loss of bone density and higher abdominal fat

One of the biggest changes is a reduced level of oestrogen, which causes you to lose bone density and increases your risk of osteoporosis in later life.

The same hormonal changes are linked to more abdominal fat which, in turn, raises the risk of heart disease, diabetes and colorectal cancer – making regular screening important.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsInflammation can build up – a risk factor for degenerative diseases

In addition, for both women and men, inflammation can build up in body tissues and arteries which is a confirmed risk factor for heart disease, stroke and Alzheimer’s. Indeed, dementia has now risen to be the leading cause of death in UK women.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDNA damage accumulates and can lead to cancer

Finally, damage to DNA caused by free radical action, begins to accumulate. This can be a trigger for cancer – at a time when the immune system gradually becomes less efficient.

All this is not meant to be alarmist, but to explain the underlying reasons why the risk of age-related diseases increases for women (and of course men too) after the age of 50.

Fortunately, armed with this knowledge, there are things you can do that hugely reduce your personal risk.

The secret to staying healthy, living longer, and even ageing more slowly, is to reduce, limit, or even prevent, each of these interlinked threats.

That means taking action to counteract declines in oestrogen levels, counteract inflammation, counteract free radical damage and boost your immune system.

By combining the results and advice from four major studies, each from a prestige university, we have developed a strategy to do this.

Because your diet and lifestyle need to change in line with the changes in your body, many of which, of course, that are brought about by the menopause.

The MIND Diet that can lower Alzheimer’s risk by 53%

Large scale health studies have been conducted on three particular eating plans that each significantly improve your health.

By combining them – and adding some extra nutrients – you can benefit from ‘the best of the best’. You are learning from the healthiest people on our planet.

The Mediterranean Diet

You will have almost certainly have heard of the Mediterranean Diet – based on diets in specific areas in the Mediterranean called ‘Blue Zones’. In these areas, a high proportion of people live free of illness into their 90s and beyond.

The Mediterranean Diet has been shown to reduce heart disease, diabetes and certain cancers.

It features high levels of fruits and vegetables, fish, herbs, nuts, olive oil, limited red meat and dairy and occasional red wine.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

The DASH Diet

Less well known is the DASH Diet – which stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. It came out of extensive research at Harvard University.

The DASH Diet reduces blood pressure and is strongly recommended for heart health, reducing stroke risk, control of diabetes and for weight loss and maintenance. That’s important as your metabolism begins to slow after your 40s.

It’s fibre-rich and again features fruit and vegetable whole foods, whole grains, lean fish and poultry and low-fat dairy, with very limited processed foods, salt, sugars and red meat.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

The MIND Diet

The MIND Diet – which stands for the Mediterranean/Dash Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay – combines the two previous diets and was introduced in 2016.

The MIND Diet emphasises ‘brain foods’ that improve focus and memory – foods like berries (blueberries, raspberries, strawberries etc), green tea, Omega 3 rich oily fish (salmon, sardines, mackerel etc), nuts and olive oil.

Why these foods? Because oily fish (and some nuts and seeds like walnuts and flaxseeds) provide Omega 3 which is vital for brain health and normal neuron connections. Berry fruits – and leafy greens – are high in flavonoids and polyphenols which are brain protective.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Flavonoids – as important as vitamins and minerals?

Flavonoids and polyphenols are a class of nutrients found in fruits and vegetables that are probably as important for health as vitamins and minerals.

Flavonoids include the colourants in the skins of plants – powerful nutrients like the carotenoids, beta carotene, lycopene and lutein. Carotenoids help prevent the formation of the beta amyloid plaques and tangles that degrade neuron brain cells and characterise an Alzheimer’s brain. They are also important anti-cancer nutrients.

Studies on MED-DASH-MIND diets show lower cancer, dementia and heart risks AND slower ageing

1: Healthier brains    The MIND diet can protect against cognitive decline, dementia and Alzheimer’s. This is a critical benefit when the UK’s Office of National Statistics confirms that in 2017, dementia is the leading cause of death for women! (And the second most frequent cause of death for men.)

2: Younger brains    A study in the Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association found that adults following a MIND diet had a 53% lower risk of developing dementia than those eating a typical Western diet.

They went further – those eating the most DASH diet servings (in the top third of nutritional intake) were assessed as 7.5 years younger in biological age.

3: Healthier hearts    The MIND diet can lower inflammation in body tissues and blood vessels. Chronic inflammation is known to be a key driver of stroke and heart disease – and heart disease is the second leading cause of death in women. And the number 1 cause in men. Stroke is essentially ‘a heart attack in the brain’.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

4: Reduced cancer risk   By providing high anti-oxidant levels, the MIND diet can help reduce oxidation and therefore free radical damage to tissues and cells, which otherwise can lead to cancer, including breast and cervical cancer. The high fibre content of the MIND diet also helps to prevent colorectal cancer.

5: Increased bone density    A MIND diet is high in calcium, magnesium and vitamin K, because it includes leafy green vegetables like kale and spinach. So – with the addition of vitamin D – it will help to prevent loss of bone density.

Indeed, a study of more than 90,000 participants showed that eating a Mediterranean diet (a sub-set of the MIND diet) was linked to increased bone health and lower fracture risk in postmenopausal women.

6: Stronger immunity    The MIND diet is also a natural immune system booster. It’s high in vitamins and minerals like vitamin A, C and D, zinc, in flavonoids, carotenoids and in Omega 3 – all of which strongly support the immune system.

So it helps counteract the fact that your immune system would normally weaken over time. That’s one reason why we become more vulnerable to flu, contagious diseases and indeed cancer as we get older. Cancer is, in part, an immune system failure.

7: Healthier blood sugar    Finally, the MIND diet improves blood sugar levels and therefore helps protect against diabetes.

Improved memory from regular activity

Regular weight-bearing activity/exercise is also essential to maintaining health over 50. It can be as simple as walking, and doesn’t just strengthen bones, but has a direct impact on brain health.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

The hippocampus is a part of the brain that is critical to memory. Normally it shrinks by 1-2% a year as you get older, leading to potential cognitive impairment. But research shows that that just 40 minutes of brisk walking three times per week leads to significant brain growth.

In one study, adults who participated in aerobic exercise saw over 2% increase in the size of their hippocampus over one year, in contrast to a 1.4% decline in control subjects. A University of California study shows that women who are regularly physically active have far fewer of the plaques and tangles that are characteristic of Alzheimer’s.

All-round health defence

You will have noticed that the nutrient-dense MIND diet helps lower the risk of all three leading causes of death and disability in women.

Why? Because it addresses the risk factors we started with – it reduces inflammation, it reduces free radical damage, it strengthens the immune system and it helps reduce the risk of gaining fat around the belly area.

But can you go even further? Can you counteract the decline in your oestrogen?

Natural ways to boost oestrogen levels

There are several phyto-oestrogens (‘phyto’ means plant-derived). These plant foods mimic oestrogen and help increase your oestrogen levels. Many health researchers prefer them over HRT.

Foods made from soybeans – like tofu, soy chunks, soy mince and soy milk – contain soy isoflavones. Not only do soy isoflavones increase oestrogen levels in women, they are associated with the fact that the incidence of cancer in Japanese women is far lower than in the UK or USA.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Flax seeds are also a rich source of phyto-oestrogens. They have additional benefits, too – they contain Omega 3 oils and fibre and help lower cholesterol levels in the blood. They can easily be added to cereals or smoothies.

Nuts also contain phyto-oestrogens, as do dried apricots and peaches – which make a great healthy snack.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Counter-balancing a decline in oestrogen is important too for sexual health. Lowered levels of oestrogen lead to reduced vaginal lubrication, which can make sexual intercourse more difficult. It also increases your risk of urinary and vaginal infections.

Turn on the good genes and turn off the ‘bad’ genes

Although genes are a factor in health and longevity, a 2016 study clearly shows it is the impact of nutrition on the way genes are expressed that is the real key to health.

So, although you cannot alter your genetic make-up, there is a lot you can do to influence the way those genes are expressed. When a gene is expressed, it is either activated or deactivated, switched on or off.

The food and lifestyle choices you make can turn genes on or off – and those switches either favour health or lead to disease. It’s all part of two exciting new sciences called epigenetics and nutrigenomics.

The National Institutes for Health published a landmark research paper in 2018 called Effects of Dietary Nutrients on Epigenetic Changes in Cancer. It confirms that:

“Nutrition can alter gene expression, as well as the susceptibility to disease, including cancer, through epigenetic changes.”

How nutrition can impact gene expression to improve health—–

• The Leibniz Institute on Agingin 2017 showed that optimum levels of B complex vitamins is vital to prevent incorrect activation of genes. In this case optimum means a higher level than the RDA.

• Supplementing with B complex vitamins can activate genes that help protect against air pollution – a fact that should interest people working and living in cities.

Grapeseed flavonoids have been shown to activate genes that reduce stress and depression.

• The anti-oxidant flavonoids in blueberries activate genes that reduce DNA damage, which in turn reduces the risk of cancer.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Carotenoids like lutein and lycopene activate genes that repair DNA damage

Ginger and its cousin turmeric (which in supplement form is curcumin) activate hundreds of genes that are anti-inflammatory and neuro (brain) protective.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Zinc activates genes that improve immune defence.

Vitamin B12 and folic acid help to express genes that protect against colon cancer and neural damage.

Vitamin D3 activates numerous genes that inhibit tumours, improve immune response and prevent bone density and cartilage loss.

A lesser known nutrient called betaine (a quasi B vitamin) activates a gene that reduces the level of a compound in the blood called homocysteine. That’s important for heart health, because high homocysteine is a risk factor for heart disease.

Countering NEGATIVE GENE EXPRESSION

Some of the most extensive work on gene expression has been done by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Lead researcher Berit Johansen confirms that:

“… a diet high in carbohydrates negatively activates genes that are involved in type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease and some forms of cancer.”

To counter this, cut down substantially on sugar, processed foods and simple carbohydrates ie. starchy foods like white bread, potatoes and white rice. Replace them with whole grains, fruits and vegetables and lean protein.

The optimum balance from their studies appears to be equal thirds complex carbohydrate, protein and fat – especially Omega 3 type fats. Essentially the MIND diet!

An ideal eating plan for women over 50

All this research strongly points to the ideal diet for a woman over 50 as a modification of the MIND diet – ie. by adding some soy products and flax seeds and increasing your intake of nutrients that promote positive gene expression.

But there is a catch …

The number of daily portions of fruits and vegetables in the MIND, DASH and MEDITERRANEAN studies is considerably higher than a simple 5-a-day recommendation.

Indeed, both the American Cancer Society and University College London in a recent huge study conclude that you need 9-10 portions of fruits and vegetables a day – plus 2-3 portions of oily fish a week. At these levels your blood chemistry becomes seriously protective against age-related illness.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

But for many people 70 portions of fruit and veg a week is not realistic. [When the UK Government was setting a recommendation for fruit and vegetables, their advisors arbitrarily cut the figure to 5 a day – even though the scientific evidence was 9-10 a day, believing that people would simply not even try to reach that level.]

… which is why a woman over 50 should consider a supplement

That supplement should include flavonoids, which are as important to health as vitamins and minerals. And it should include Omega 3, soy isoflavones, and the nutrients that promote positive gene expression – like lutein, lycopene, beta carotene, betaine, extra B vitamins and vitamin D. A simple one-a day multivitamin just isn’t enough.

Modified MIND Diet plus NutriShield health supplement

The one-page summary of the ideal, modified MIND diet does include a health supplement called NutriShield Premium, which supplies all these extra nutrients.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

It doesn’t include iron because iron supplements are NOT recommended for women past the menopause, as too much iron can cause liver and heart damage. [Iron supplementation is generally not recommended for men of any age.]

NutriShield also includes optimum levels of B vitamins and vitamins D3 and K2 and helps you reach the sort of levels of nutrients in the research.

Unlike most supplements, NutriShield doesn’t just contain the basic RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance) amounts of vitamins and minerals, which only prevent outright deficiencies. Instead, it’s designed to provide you daily with the wide range and high level of nutrients found in the very healthiest diets.

You can download the plan free here.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

NutriShield Healthy Eating and Lifestyle Plan

Recommended Health Check-Up List for women over 50

You can see our list of recommended regular health check-ups for women over 50 here.

Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

And you can see how NutriShield Premium can help women over 50 stay fit and healthy here.


Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThis article was written by Colin Rose, a Senior Associate Member of the Royal Society of Medicine, who has been writing on science for 40 years.

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Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsOver 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsOver 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

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Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive health supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including soy isoflavones, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and green tea. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the picture.


Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Over 50? The health facts every woman should know NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Estrogen production and action. Linda R. Nelson, MD, PhD, Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago

Estrogen’s Dual Nature; Studies Highlight Effects on Breast Cancer. Renee Twombly; Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 103, Issue 12, 22 June 2011

URL: hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-weight/diet-reviews/dash-diet

Dietary Patterns and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women. Haring B, Crandall CJ, Wu C, Leblanc ES, Shikany JM, Carbone L, Wassertheil-Smoller S. (2016).  JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(5), 645.

Mediterranean diet and brain structure in a multi-ethnic elderly cohort. Gu Y, Brickman A et al (2015). Neurology, 85 (20), 1744-1751.

https://www.rush.edu/news/press-releases/mind-diet-may-slow-cognitive-decline-stroke-survivors

Vitamins regulate gene expression and induce differentiation and growth inhibition in cancer cells. Their relevance in cancer prevention. Prasad KN, Edwards-Prasad J, Kumar S, Meyers A. 1993 Oct;119(10):1133-40.

Influence of Vitamin D on Gene Expression in Bone-building Cells; Genomic Determinants of Gene Regulation by 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 during Osteoblast-lineage Cell Differentiation J. Biol. Chem. 2014, 289.

URL: alzheimersresearchuk.org/dementia-is-leading-cause-of-death-for-women-in-england-and-wales

Feed your genes: How our genes respond to the foods we eat. The Norwegian University of Science & Technology. ScienceDaily 20 September 2011. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/09/110919073845.htm.

Menopause, obesity and inflammation: interactive risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease. Amy Christensen and Christian J. Pike; Front Aging Neurosci. 2015

Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. Sayal N (2015) Annals of Neurosciences, 22(2). doi:10.5214/ans.0972.7531.22

Nutrition can help depression

University research shows that certain health supplements and combinations of foods and nutrients can not only improve overall mood but even reduce the incidence, length and severity of depression.

Omega 3

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsPeople who are deficient in omega-3 fatty acids are generally more susceptible to depression and low mood. The brain has a high component of fatty acids and about 30% of these are Omega 3, according to the Mental Health Foundation. Intake of Omega 3 assists the production of dopamine –  the ‘reward’ neurotransmitter that responds to pleasurable experiences. Walnuts are a good source of plant-based Omega 3, but the body metabolises plant omega 3 less efficiently than fish oil.

Curcumin

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe health benefits of curcumin (derived from turmeric) are well documented and wide ranging. It’s known to be an anti-inflammatory, has anti-cancer properties and is neuroprotective. But research published by The US National Institutes of Health now indicates it may even be as effective as Prozac (fluoxetine) – but without the side effects.

Their conclusion: “This study provides first clinical evidence that curcumin may be used as an effective and safe modality for treatment in patients with MDD [major depressive disorder] without concurrent suicidal ideation or other psychotic disorders.”

Selenium

Studies at the University of Wales have shown that people who are low in selenium have increased rates of depression, anxiety and tiredness and that optimising selenium intake helps raise mood and reduce depression.

Chromium

Chromium is a trace mineral involved in the regulation of insulin and thus metabolism. It has an important role in raising the brain’s level of serotonin and melatonin which help the brain regulate emotion, mood and sleep. Research at Duke University in the US has found that supplementation helps in the treatment of depression.

Magnesium

Magnesium has an important role in the development of serotonin, which is a major contributor to feelings of happiness. Researchers in Austin, Texas have shown that supplementation contributes to an improvement in mood and a reduction in depression.

Vitamin D

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIf there ever was a super-nutrient, it is surely vitamin D. Most people are depleted in Vitamin D, especially in the 5 months of winter. In addition to its role in supporting the production of healthy cells and a strong immune system, a major study at the Chicago School of Nursing has shown that Vitamin D supplementation improves mood and reduces depression. Their conclusion?

… Treatment of inadequate vitamin D levels in persons with depression and other mental disorders may be an easy and cost-effective therapy which could improve patients’ long-term health outcomes as well as their quality of life”.

Zinc

Zinc is a vital trace mineral needed for a strong immune system. In addition, Canadian researchers have found that it can help treat depression.

Vitamin B6

Researchers in a large UK hospital have successfully used vitamin B6 in the treatment of PMS depression. B6 is essential in regulating general brain function.

Folic Acid/Folate

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsFolate, the B vitamin found in leafy green vegetables, assists in the regulation of serotonin and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are both important in the passing of messages between brain cells. Researchers at the Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory in Surrey have combined folic acid and vitamin B12 to help treat depression. Folate or folic acid may also increase the effectiveness of the anti-depressant fluoxetine.

Tryptophan

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe amino acid tryptophan – in conjunction with vitamin B6 – raises the level of the hormone serotonin, which in turn helps elevate your mood. Deficiencies in B6 can cause a lowering of immune function and depression. Bananas not only contain tryptophan but vitamin B6, and fibre.  Fibre helps ensure that energy is slowly released into the bloodstream, so it helps keep your blood sugar and mood stable. The opposite is a ‘sugar rush’ where blood sugar levels rise but then dip quickly, leaving you feeling irritable.

Other foods that are above average in tryptophan are chicken and turkey.

Lentils, oats and whole grains

These are complex carbohydrates which have a low GI (Glycaemic Index), which helps stabilise your blood sugar levels and therefore mood.

Dark chocolate

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIn a recent study, 30 people were given just 40g of dark chocolate a day, over 14 days. They produced less stress hormones and their anxiety levels decreased. A small square of dark chocolate contains polyphenols which cause the brain to release endorphins and boost serotonin levels.

Calcium

A study in the Journal of the American College of Nutrition linked higher calcium intake to lower levels of PMS-related depression. This makes sense as (o)estrogen plays a significant role in calcium production. There was no indication, however, that increased calcium had any effect on male moods.

Saffron

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsIn an innovative study at Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 50 women with PMS were given just 15 mg of saffron daily over two menstrual cycles.  By the end of the study, over three-quarters of the women reported that their PMS symptoms (such as mood swings and depression) declined by at least half, compared with only 8 percent of women in the placebo group.

Green tea

Green tea contains high levels of the amino acid theanine, which has been shown to be an anti-stress relaxant.

Conclusion – Mediterranean Diet plus supplement

I am conscious that if you suffer from depression or just want to boost your general mood, a list like this can be both encouraging but also a bit confusing.

But the overall conclusion is that there is evidence from many clinical trials that a largely Mediterranean Diet supported by a supplement that safely increases your intake of curcumin, Omega 3, vitamin D3, B vitamins, folic acid, zinc, chromium, selenium and green tea extract is very likely to help.

NutriShield contains all these nutrients at effective levels.

 


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You can follow us on www.facebook.com/nutrishield or www.twitter.com/colinrose40 for daily headline health tweets.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthNutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.

Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from most good bookstores. See the website www.healthdefence.com for excerpts and links to buy direct from the publisher.

See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Nutrition can help depression NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Sanmukhani J, Satodia V, Trivedi J, Patel T, Tiwari D, Panchal B, Goel A, Tripathi CB. Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):579-85. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5025. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Benton D. Selenium intake, mood and other aspects of psychological functioning. Nutritional Neuroscience 2002

Haag, M. Department of Physiology, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Essential fatty acids and the brain. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 2003, 2003 Apr; 48(3):195-203

Jacka, F.N., Pasco, J.A., Mykletun, A., et al. Association of Western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women.  Department of Clinical and Biomedical Sciences, University of Melbourne, Australia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2010 Mar; 167(3):305-11

Kemper, K., Shannon, S. Pediatric Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Therapies to Promote Healthy Moods. Clinics of North America, 2007 December; 54(6): 901–926

Sue Penckofer, PhD, RN, Joanne Kouba, PhD, RD, Mary Byrn, BSN, RN, and Carol Estwing Ferrans, PhD, RN, FAAN. Vitamin D and Depression: Where is all the Sunshine? Ment Health Nurs. 2010 Jun; 31(6): 385–393.doi:  10.3109/01612840903437657

Thys-Jacobs S. Metabolic Bone Micronutrients and the premenstrual syndrome: the case for calcium. Center, St. Luke’s-Roosevelt Hospital Center, Columbia University, New York, New York. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 2000 Apr; 19 (2):220-7

Docherty, J.P., Sack, D.A., Roffman, M. et al. Effectiveness of chromium in atypical depression: a placebo-controlled trial. Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, North Carolina. Biological Psychiatry, 2003 Feb 1; 53(3):261-4

Coppen, A., Bolander-Gouaille, C. Treatment of depression: time to consider folic acid and vitamin B12. MRC Neuropsychiatric Research Laboratory, Surrey, UK. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 2005 Jan; 19(1):59-65

Coppen A, Bailey J. Enhancement of the antidepressant action of fluoxetine by folic acid: a randomized, placebo controlled trial. Journal of Affect Disorders. 2000 Nov; 60(2):121–130

Conklin, S.M., Harris, J.I., Manuck, S.B., et al. Serum omega-3 fatty acids are associated with variation in mood, personality and behavior in hypercholesterolemic community volunteers.  Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine Postdoctoral Training Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. Psychiatry Research, 2007 Jul 30; 152(1):1-10

Wyatt, K.M., Dimmock, P.W., Jones, P.W. Efficacy of vitamin B-6 in the treatment of PMS. Academic Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, North Staffordshire Hospital. BMJ, 1999 May 22’318 (7195): 1375-81

Eby, G.A., Eby, K.L. Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis. George Eby Research Institute, Austin, Texas. Medical Hypotheses. 2010 Apr;74(4):649-60

Milaneschi, Y., Hoogendijk, W., Lips, P., et al. The association between low vitamin D and depressive disorders. Department of Psychiatry and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research and Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Molecular Psychiatry 2013 Apr 9

Swardfager, W., Herrmann, N., McIntyre, R.S., et al. Potential roles of zinc in the pathophysiology and treatment of major depressive disorder. Neuropharmacology Research Group, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Canada. Neuroscience and Bio-behavioral Review 2013 Jun;37(5):911-29