Yogurt for gut health ☹ – prefer probiotic supplements

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


Yogurts don’t have enough probiotics to deliver gut health benefits

Yogurts in supermarkets do not contain anywhere near enough probiotics – ‘friendly bacteria’ – to have the health benefits you might be looking for.

That’s the conclusion of a major study from University of Toronto’s Department of Nutritional Sciences. As lead researcher Mary Scourboutakos puts it:

“In some cases, a person would have to eat up to 25 servings of yogurt a day in order to reap the promised benefits, which is completely unrealistic.”

Yet probiotics themselves have been shown to improve:

  • Digestion
  • Medical inflammatory conditions like irritable bowel syndrome
  • Immune function
  • and the absorption of nutrients from your diet – which is especially important in the over 60s.

Probiotics can also reduce flatulence, bloating, stomach discomfort, constipation and diarrhoea caused by C difficile or the use of antibiotics.

They may even help reduce depression via the recognised gut-brain pathway.

Probiotics have a good track record of helping clear yeast infections and candida.

Some researchers even claim that certain strains can help with weight management, but the evidence here is limited.

Gut health is vital to a strong immune system

What we can definitely say is that gut health is vital to a strong immune system, because 70% of your immune function is controlled in your gut.

By crowding out bad bacteria – pathogens – probiotics can improve your overall health and, for example, restore gut balance after a course of antibiotics.

Certain strains also prompt enzyme activity which can help neutralise carcinogens and help eradicate the pathogen Helicobacter pylori – which can lead to cancerous ulcers.

All of which explains why the study of the microbiome – your intestinal flora – is now one of the hottest topics in medicine.

Why don’t yogurts deliver these benefits?

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe simple fact is that the level or dose of probiotics in most major brands is many times below the level that would benefit you. Or worse – 25 times lower than were in the studies originally conducted by the agro-food giants and on which their claims are based!

Toronto University again:

 “Our study (done on 92 supermarket yogurts) showed there’s a gap between the health benefits found in clinical trials and the benefits that consumers can expect to receive from the probiotic food products (yogurts) in the marketplace.”

So which are best for gut health – yogurts or probiotic supplements?

To answer that question, here are some key yogurt and probiotic facts.

Yogurt and probiotic facts

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsMany yogurts don’t even qualify as probiotics. Virtually all yogurts are made with a combination of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and/or Streptococcus thermophilus, but they are only there to kick-start the fermentation process, NOT in sufficient amounts to be classified as a probiotic food.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSo a pack statement ‘made with yogurt cultures’ doesn’t mean it’s going to work like a probiotic. All that means is that the manufacturing process started with live cultures – as it must in order to convert milk to the fermented product yogurt.

Many supermarket yogurts are heat-treated to increase shelf life, but that kills good and bad bacteria alike. So these yogurts don’t even contain live bacteria by the end of their manufacturing process.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsSome yogurt manufacturers do add probiotic strains back to their products after sterilisation. In the UK, there are no standards for probiotics, but in the USA, to be called a probiotic food or to claim ‘promotes healthy gut flora’, a yogurt must contain at least one billion live colony-forming units (ie. active probiotic cultures) of at least one recognised probiotic species per serving.

But unlike probiotic supplements, very few yogurts declare a precise level of colony-forming units. So it’s difficult to tell what you are actually getting – and it’s almost certainly less than 1 billion.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe general scientific consensus is that the more good bacteria there are in your gut, the harder it is for bad bacteria to flourish and cause problems. It appears that you need at least 7 billion probiotic bacteria per serving to get a health benefit.This number should be comprised of multiple strains – because different strains colonise in different parts of your gastro-intestinal tract and each has a specific health benefit.

In addition, there is evidence that strains work together to create a beneficial synergistic effect. For example, Bifidobacterium lactis has been shown to have a greater effect when accompanied by Lactobacillus rhamnosus.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsYogurts taste great and are still a valuable source of protein, calcium, magnesium and zinc, so they are a healthy food. Moreover, research published in the specialist Journal Translational Medicine indicates that yogurt does beneficially metabolise starches in fruits, grains and vegetables. But even if they state ‘contains active live cultures’, very few contain enough probiotic cultures in high enough doses to deliver the specific benefits you can achieve with a supplement.

Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe only caveat to calling yogurts ‘healthy’ is that some brands – especially and unfortunately marketed to homes with children – contain far too much added fructose, corn syrup or sugar, which can actually increase the level of bad bacteria in the gut!

So many yogurts are more of a sweet dessert than a health food. Indeed, Cornucopia, a US food and farm policy research group, found that flavoured varieties of certain brands of yogurt (eg. strawberry) contained no actual fruit, and included total sugars that rival those in a chocolate bar.

Cornucopia have filed a formal complaint against several yogurt companies with the FDA, and women should note that sugars can feed candida.

So: Are probiotic supplements better than yogurt for gut health?

Probiotic supplements don’t include protein or vitamins and minerals. But if you want the health benefits that researchers say a probiotic can deliver, then a probiotic supplement offers a much clearer way to achieve those benefits than a supermarket yogurt.

So the answer is yes.

But there are guidelines for choosing the best probiotic supplement.

1. It should have at least 7 billion ‘colony-forming’ bacteria per capsule.

2. It should have multiple strains – at least five to seven. Because different strains deliver different benefits.

For example, Lactobacillus acidophilus has been shown to help reduce cholesterol levels, while Lactobacillus plantarum has proven effectiveness in helping reduce the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus have been shown to help reduce inflammation within brain neurons – and thereby ease depression.

Other strains like Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Lactobacillus plantarum have been shown to improve immune function, and improve vaginal health.

Choosing a supplement that contains the right balance of strains to help with your particular health issues is the key to getting the biggest benefit from a probiotic supplement. There’s a helpful report at

https://uni-vite.com/microbiotic/how-probiotics-improve-your-health-report/

3. The strains in your probiotic supplement must have been researched to be hardy.

The stomach is very acidic and probiotics need to be able to survive long enough to reach and colonise various parts of your intestine to have their beneficial effects.

The University of Nebraska has a world class centre for probiotic research. It identifies two exceptionally resistant strains – being Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1 and Bacillus coagulans ProDura.

4. Probiotics are live microbes. Their ‘food’ is prebiotics – sources include leeks, onions, oats and garlic. A well formulated probiotic should include some prebiotics to ‘kick-start’ their colonisation of the gut.

Check probiotic supplement labels

A final point.  As noted above, the US National Yogurt Association requires 1 billion cultures per serving to be classified as a probiotic yogurt. The UK does have a code of practice for yogurts, but this does not include any definition of probiotic standards.

In contrast, probiotic supplements can be much more worthwhile, but check labels carefully.

The UK multi-strain supplement brand Microbiotic Plus contains 7.5 billion cultures per vegan dairy-free capsule or serving – some 700% of the US threshold level.

Conclusion – yogurt AND probiotic supplements

Keep eating your yogurt for its other benefits – ideally traditionally made, organic and live or in forms like kefir.

But to get the real benefits of probiotics, look at scientifically formulated probiotic supplements.

 


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Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsYogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsYogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

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Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthYogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including soy isoflavones, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and greent tea. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


MicroBiotic Plus is a vegan probiotic/prebiotic supplement Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Mineralscontaining 7.5 billion friendly bacteria of 7 different hardy strains including Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus coagulans, plus natural plant prebiotics. See more detail by clicking on the button.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Yogurt for gut health ☹ - prefer probiotic supplements NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Mismatch between Probiotic Benefits in Trials versus Food Products Mary J. Scourboutakos et al Nutrients 2017, 9(4), 400; doi:3390/nu9040400

Expert consensus document – The international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.  Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2014, 11, 506–514.

Probiotics, gut microbiota and health. Butel MJ. Mal. Infect. 2014, 44, 1–8.

Probiotics: Delineation of prophylactic and therapeutic benefits.  Med. Food 2009, 12, 219–235.

Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food. World Health Organization. Available online: http://www.who.int/foodsafety/fs_management/en/probiotic_guidelines.pdf

Metabolism and biochemical characteristics of yogurt bacteria. A review. A Zourari, JP Accolas, MJ Desmazeaud. Le Lait. INRA Editions, 1992, 72 (1), 1-34.

Benefits of Homemade Yogurt Versus Commercial. Mercola, Joseph. Organic Consumers Association. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 July 2017.

Enhancing immunity by dietary consumption of a probiotic lactic acid bacterium (Bifidobacterium lactis HN019):optimization and definition of cellular immune responses. Chiang BL, Sheih YH, Wang LH, Liao CK, Gill HS (2000). Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 849–855.

Irritable bowel syndrome in the United States: Prevalence, symptoms patterns and impact. Hungin APS, Chang L, Locke GR et al. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21:1365–1375.

http://www.dairyuk.org/media-area/resources/item/yogurt-cop

 

 

7 health positives for curcumin

Curcumin is one of the safest and most powerful bioactive plant compounds

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

 


DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO CURCUMIN AT A GLANCE

Curcumin is a remarkable nutrient. Clinical evidence shows that:

♦ CURCUMIN is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant
♦ CURCUMIN can be as effective as Prozac in lifting depression
♦ CURCUMIN contributes to heart health by supporting free flowing arteries. It may be as effective as statins for dealing with atheroma.
♦ CURCUMIN appears to have several roles in an anti-cancer regime
♦ CURCUMIN improves mobility and reduces joint pain in arthritis sufferers


It has many proven medical benefits for brain, heart, joint health and even cancer risk reduction.

Curcumin is both anti-inflammatory and a powerful anti-oxidant. Derived from the bright yellow root of turmeric, curcumin has only one disadvantage – it is not well absorbed into the bloodstream by itself.

But its bioavailability is enhanced by an astonishing 2,000% when it is ingested along with piperine which is, itself, derived from black pepper. And yet further enhanced in the presence of an oil because it is fat soluble – which is why the combination with Omega 3 in NutriShield is ideal.

Look for curcumin in supplements that is ‘standardised’ as an extract at a level of 95%, as this obviously means it has very high levels of the bioactive compound.

7 Positives for Health

1. Curcumin is a powerful anti-inflammatory

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsCurcumin has been found to block the action of a strongly pro-inflammatory molecule called NF–kB. This switches on genes that lead to inflammation. It has also been shown to lower levels of a key marker of inflammation called CRP – C-Reactive Protein.

2. Curcumin is a powerful anti-oxidant

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsCurcumin’s anti-oxidant action can slow or stop the chain reactions involved in free radical damage.

 

3. Curcumin protects the brain

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsOver and above its anti-oxidant effect as a brain neuron protector, curcumin may have another brain health role.

Studies show that curcumin can increase levels of BNDF, a hormone that is responsible for youthful brain function, and this may delay age-related brain deterioration.

4. Curcumin improves heart health by reversing the hardening and narrowing of arteries

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe endothelium is the normally smooth lining of your blood vessels including your arteries. It helps regulate blood pressure and blood clotting and is involved in the inflammatory response. “Endothelial dysfunction” is a cause of atheroma – the dangerous narrowing and eventual hardening of the arteries.

But atheroma and endothelial dysfunction are reversible – and an 8 week study showed that curcumin was as effective as the commonly prescribed statin, atorvastatin.

5. Curcumin can ease pain and increase mobility in arthritis

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsStudies show that it inhibits a pain enzyme called Cox-2 – a mode of action rather like NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs).

But the advantage of curcumin is that it is natural with no side effects.  Over 20 studies confirm that it supports joint mobility and pain relief.

6. Curcumin has multiple roles in combating cancer

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsA significant number of studies show that curcumin exerts what one researcher calls “multiple different suppressive effects on human cancers including breast cancer.”

The effects include inhibiting blood supplies to tumours, slowing their spread and even initiating the death of cancer cells.

7. Curcumin can slow ageing by preventing the shortening of telomeres

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsTelomeres are the protective little caps at the end of double-stranded molecules of DNA. Each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter. Once they get too short, the cell can no longer divide, and it becomes inactive and dies. The shortening of telomeres is a known marker of ageing.

Curcumin has been shown in several studies to prevent the shortening of telomeres.

Supplement with curcumin

Read more detail about the health benefits of curcumin below. There’s no question you’ll want to include it in your daily supplement regime.

There are 250mg of 95% Curcuminoid extract in every daypack of NutriShield Essentials and NutriShield Premium, supplements designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.


More on all these health benefits of curcumin

7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Anti-inflammatory

The latest medical evidence is clear – chronic (ie. continuous) inflammation within tissues and cells is a key driver of almost every degenerative disease.

Inflammation is certainly a factor in heart disease, in metabolic syndrome, in Alzheimer’s, in obesity and diabetes, in arthritis and in certain cancers which start from sites of inflammation and makes the spread of cancer more likely.

So anti-inflammatory foods and nutrients should be in the front-line of your preventative health strategy.

Curcumin has been found to block the action of a strongly pro-inflammatory molecule called NF–kB. This switches on genes that lead to inflammation. It has also been shown to lower levels of a key marker of inflammation called CRP or C-Reactive Protein.

Anti-oxidant

Oxidative damage occurs when our bodies metabolise oxygen and create energy. So some oxidation is inevitable. But the process also creates free radicals which react with and damage cells, DNA, mitochondria and fatty acids in the body.

If the body has excess free radicals and insufficient anti-oxidants to neutralise those free radicals, then oxidative damage occurs.

In everyday life, oxidative or free radical damage is the process by which fat goes rancid and apples turn brown.

In the body, oxidative damage manifests itself eventually as:

  • Fatigue and premature ageing (via damage to mitochondria – the cell “energy factories”)
  • Wrinkled skin
  • A trigger for cancer (via damage to DNA)
  • Brain ageing and neurogenerative disease such as senile dementia (via damage to neurons)
  • Atherosclerosis (narrowing and hardening of arteries)
  • Degenerative eye disease – since the eye is an organ with intense oxidative activity and needs high levels of anti-oxidants to protect its unsaturated fatty acids.

An anti-oxidant can slow or stop the chain reactions involved in free radical damage.

As a powerful anti-oxidant, curcumin should definitely be in your supplement, along with at least 500mg of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, zinc, beta-carotene and CoQ10. All these, too, are anti-oxidants.

One well referenced study on free radicals and disease summarised the role of anti-oxidants.

The human species is not genetically adapted to survive past middle age, and it appears that anti-oxidant supplementation of our diet is needed to ensure a more healthy elderly population’.

Improves brain function

Over and above its role as an anti-oxidant and brain neuron protector, curcumin may have another brain health role.

A hormone called Brain Derived Neurotropic Factor (BDNF) is responsible for youthful brain function. Unfortunately this normally declines with age and appears to be a factor in depression and reduced cognitive function.  But studies show that curcumin can increase levels of BNDF and thereby may be effective in delaying age-related brain deterioration.

In addition, curcumin (so far only in laboratory tests) has been shown to be able to pass into the brain and help increase the clearance of the beta amyloid plaque cells that characterise Alzheimer’s patients’ brains.

One of the symptoms of inflammation in the brain is what is commonly called ‘brain fog’ – poorer concentration, mood malaise and memory impairment.

The Journal of Psychopharmacology, reporting on a curcumin study on healthy older adults, stated that:

‘One hour after administration, curcumin significantly improved performance on sustained attention and working memory tasks, compared with placebo. Working memory and mood (general fatigue and change in state calmness, contentedness and fatigue induced by psychological stress) were significantly better.’

In another 6-week study, published in the US National Library of Medicine, curcumin at 1,000 mg a day was found to be as effective as the anti-depressant Prozac in reducing symptoms of depression, but better tolerated.

Improves heart health

The endothelium is the normally smooth lining of your blood vessels including your arteries. It helps regulate your blood pressure, and blood clotting and is involved in the inflammatory response. What’s called endothelial dysfunction is a cause of atheroma – the dangerous narrowing and eventual hardening of the arteries.

But atheroma and endothelial dysfunction are reversible – and an 8 week study showed that curcumin was as effective as the commonly prescribed statin, atorvastatin.

This specific function of curcumin amplifies the anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of curcumin on heart health.

A presenter at the American Heart Association’s Basic Cardiovascular Sciences Annual Conference, in announcing his study results, was reported to say that:

“… curcumin supports clean, free-flowing arteries. Patients taking this pill saw 26% of gunk unclogged from their arteries.”

Although the words are hardly couched in the normal dry scientific language, it does capture the huge interest that health researchers now have in curcumin. In fact, one article claims that curcumin may have over 500 health benefits. That seems exaggerated, but the benefits on this page are well documented.

Alleviates the symptoms of arthritis

Arthritis is an inflammatory disease – as are all diseases ending in ‘-itis’.

So you would expect that curcumin could have a role in any natural arthritis treatment – and it does. Studies show that it inhibits a pain enzyme called Cox-2 – a mode of action rather like NSAIDs (Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs). But the advantage of curcumin is that it is natural with no side effects.  Over 20 studies confirm that it supports joint mobility and pain relief.

One summary study in the Journal of Alternative Medicine Review reported:

‘People taking curcumin saw pain scores drop by 60% … and stiffness scores drop by 73%.

But if you were taking curcumin as a supplement in a case of arthritis, you would ideally add Glucosamine, and co-factor vitamins D and K – as in JointShield.

Curcumin/turmeric can also be used topically to treat strains and muscle aches. Mix to a paste with a little olive oil and apply like an ointment.

Multiple roles in cancer risk reduction

For cancer to grow and form a tumour, it must develop a supply of blood vessels – a process called angiogenesis. That in turn supports metastasis or the spread on cancer cells.

A significant number of peer reviewed studies show that curcumin exerts what one researcher calls “multiple different suppressive effects on human cancers including breast cancer.”

The effects include inhibiting blood supplies to tumours, the slowing of spread and even the initiation of the death of cancer cells.

To date most of these studies have been animal studies or done on human cells in the laboratory. But a study in the Journal of Cell Biochemistry was able to state:

‘We conclude that telomerase inhibitory effects of curcumin underscore its use in adjuvant cancer therapy.’

We do know that many health researchers are using curcumin themselves.

Curcumin could be part of an anti-ageing programme

The anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin make it a candidate for a scientifically based approach to slowing ageing, because both inflammation and oxidative damage are deeply involved in ageing.

There is another effect noted in the study quoted above. Curcumin can prevent the shortening of telomeres.

Telomeres are the protective little caps at the end of double-stranded molecules of DNA called chromosomes. Each time a cell divides, the telomeres get shorter. Once they get too short, the cell can no longer divide, and it becomes inactive and dies. The shortening of telomeres is a known marker of ageing.

So it’s hypothesised that slowing or preventing the shortening of telomeres can slow biological ageing. Omega 3 and vitamin D are other natural nutrients that have been shown to help slow telomere shortening, as have weight loss and regular exercise.

Summary

If you are a nutritional supplement user, then curcumin should be in your supplement.

But so should plant derived micro-nutrients like green tea and grapeseed extract and Omega 3. And if you are over 50 when the body needs more nutrients but absorbs less, then add at least carotenoids like lutein, lycopene and beta carotene and CoQ10.

They all have solid scientific backing as helping to prevent long-term health problems whilst  contributing to noticeably improved short term energy and ‘feel-good’ status.

They are all included in NutriShield, a supplement designed by Dr Paul Clayton former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.

 


If you enjoyed this article, please share it with family and friends. You can follow us on Facebook or Twitter for daily headline health tweets.


7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive health7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients including polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants like turmeric. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. 7 health positives for curcumin NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases:Bharat B.Aggarwal, Kuzhuvelil B.Harikumar; The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology Volume 41, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 40-59

Influence of piperine on the pharmacokinetics of curcumin in animals and human volunteers. Shoba G1, Joy D, Joseph T, Majeed M, Rajendran R, Srinivas PS. Planta Med. 1998 May;64(4):353-6.

Inflammation in atherosclerosis. Libby P. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26;420(6917):868-74.

Inflammation and cancer. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26;420(6917):860-7.

The Nuclear Factor NF-κB Pathway in Inflammation; Toby Lawrence; Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2009 Dec; 1(6): a001651.

Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa). Chainani-Wu N.  J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Feb;9(1):161-8.

The role of free radicals in disease. Florence TM. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1995 Feb;23(1):3-7.

The role of mitochondrial DNA mutations and free radicals in disease and ageing. Lagouge M, Larsson NG. J Intern Med. 2013 Jun;273(6):529-43. doi: 10.1111/joim.12055. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor. Devin K Binder and Helen E Scharfman; Growth Factors. 2004 Sep; 22(3): 123–131.

Curcumin reverses the effects of chronic stress on behavior, the HPA axis, BDNF expression and phosphorylation of CREB; Behavioural Brain Research Volume 239, 15 February 2013, Pages 27-30

Curcuminoids enhance amyloid-beta uptake by macrophages of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Zhang L, Fiala M, Cashman J, Sayre J, Espinosa A, Mahanian M, Zaghi J, Badmaev V, Graves MC, Bernard G, Rosenthal M. J Alzheimers Dis. 2006 Sep;10(1):1-7.

Investigation of the effects of solid lipid curcumin on cognition and mood in a healthy older population; Katherine HM Cox et al, Journal of Phschpharmacology

Efficacy and safety of curcumin in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Sanmukhani J, et al: Phytother Res. 2014 Apr;28(4):579-85. doi: 10.1002/ptr.5025. Epub 2013 Jul 6.

Effect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week study. Usharani P, Mateen AA, Naidu MU, Raju YS, Chandra N. Drugs R D. 2008;9(4):243-50.

Curcumin and Cancer Cells: How Many Ways Can Curry Kill Tumor Cells Selectively? Jayaraj Ravindran, Sahdeo Prasad, and Bharat B. Aggarwal AAPS J. 2009 Sep; 11(3): 495–510.

Curcumin inhibits proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of different cancers through interaction with multiple cell signalling proteins. Ajaikumar B. Kunnumakkara, Preetha Anand, Bharat B. Aggarwal. Cancer Letters October 8, 2008. Volume 269, Issue 2, Pages 199–225

Curcumin exerts multiple suppressive effects on human breast carcinoma cells; Zhi‐Ming Shao et al; International Journal of Cancer Volume 98, Issue 2

Curcumin inhibits telomerase and induces telomere shortening and apoptosis in brain tumour cells. Khaw AK, Hande MP, Kalthur G, Hande MP.; J Cell Biochem. 2013 Jun;114(6):1257-70. doi: 10.1002/jcb.24466.