RDA levels of vitamins and minerals are not enough

RDAs were never set for optimum health – only to avoid deficiency illness

RDA levels of vitamins and minerals are not enough NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO RECOMMENDED DAILY ALLOWANCES

It is a misunderstanding that the RDAs – also called RNIs (Reference Nutrient Intakes) or RDVs (Reference Daily Values) – for vitamins and minerals are set so that if you take them, you will achieve the best health status.

Here are some enlightening facts about RDAs.

♦ RDAs were originally set as minimum guidance during food rationing! Of course, they have been updated but only rather infrequently.

♦ RDAs are set to ensure that 95% of people do not become clinically deficient, leading to illnesses like:

  • rickets (vitamin D deficiency)
  • scurvy (vitamin C deficiency)
  • pernicious anaemia (B12 deficiency)
  • beriberi (B5 deficiency)

Preventing clinical deficiency is a low threshold compared with targeting optimal health.

♦ As you get older you need more nutrition to help counteract the processes that underlie ageing, but you tend to absorb less nutrients from food.

♦ RDAs have never been set for lots of nutrients that are acknowledged as very important for general health and protecting particularly against degenerative disease.

There are no RDAs for Omega 3 (although the guidance is 2-3 portions of oily fish a week) or the micro-nutrients in fruits and vegetables such as carotenoids (lutein, lycopene, beta carotene), flavonoids (eg. curcuminoids) and polyphenols (anthocyanidins, procyanidins, catechins) and many more.

Polyphenols and flavonoids are compounds that plants have evolved to protect themselves. When we eat them, we get the same sort of protective benefits – including anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory actions that are vital for good health.

♦ There is some evidence that soils are becoming more depleted in certain minerals – selenium and zinc being two key ones. Both are essential for immune function.

♦ Surveys consistently show that the majority of people have below even the RDAs of vitamin D, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins.

The therapeutic levels of vitamins and minerals to raise your blood levels to a protective status are much higher than the RDA for B vitamins (critical for energy release), vitamin C and vitamin D.

More is not, however, automatically better. For example, vitamin A at 100% RDA is enough, as are folic acid, zinc and copper.

The aim should be a wide balance of proven health protective nutrients at an optimum level, including plant micro-nutrients.

That’s the objective of NutriShield Premium – a daily comprehensive supplement containing 43 nutrients including all the essential vitamins and minerals at optimum levels (RDA or higher), based on research. It was designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.

 


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RDA levels of vitamins and minerals are not enough NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthRDA levels of vitamins and minerals are not enough NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including standardised green tea extract, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and soy isoflavones. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


RDA levels of vitamins and minerals are not enough NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. RDA levels of vitamins and minerals are not enough NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Chung M, Balk EM, Ip S, et al. Systematic review to support the development of nutrient reference intake values : challenges and solutions. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92:273–6.

https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/eat-well/what-are-reference-intakes-on-food-labels/

https://www.nutrition.org.uk/attachments/article/234/Nutrition%20Requirements_Revised%20Oct%202016.pdf

 

 

Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant

Green Tea – a super-antioxidant

Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO GREEN TEA AT A GLANCE

♦ GREEN TEA can help cut the risk of cancer
♦ GREEN TEA can lower blood pressure – and hence the risk of heart attack and stroke
♦ GREEN TEA can help reduce LDL (the dangerous form of) cholesterol and increase HDL – the beneficial form
♦ GREEN TEA can help reduce anxiety


Does clinical evidence support green tea’s image as an exceptionally healthy drink – and indeed as a supplement?

It does. The benefits include a reduced risk of cancer, lower blood pressure – thereby reducing the risk of heart disease and stroke – and possibly improved mental function and increased metabolism.

The most comprehensive clinical review of the benefits of green tea in recent years starts as follows:

“The health benefits of consuming green tea, including the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-bacterial, anti-oxidative, anti-viral, neuroprotective, and cholesterol-lowering effects of green tea and isolated green tea constituents (ie extracts) are under investigation.”

That’s quite a roll call of potential health benefits.

It continues:

“Green tea consumption has been linked to the prevention of many types of cancer, including lung, colon, (o)esophagus, mouth, stomach, small intestine, kidney, pancreas, and mammary glands. Several epidemiological studies and clinical trials showed that green tea may reduce the risk of many chronic diseases.

“This beneficial effect has been attributed to the presence of high amounts of polyphenols, which are potent antioxidants. In particular, green tea may lower blood pressure and thus reduce the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease.”

The micronutrients in Green Tea

The key plant micronutrient accounting for green tea’s health benefits is known as EGCG, a type of catechin polyphenol called epigallocatechin-3-gallate. It is a very powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant, protecting cells and DNA against free radical damage which is at the heart of ageing, heart disease and some cancers.

A 2018 study found:

“EGCG was found to exhibit a wide range of therapeutic properties including anti-atherosclerosis, anti-cardiac hypertrophy, anti-myocardial infarction, anti-diabetes, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant.”

For highest EGCG levels, choose standardised quality

The best green tea supplements are standardised – meaning that they contain high and defined levels of EGCG. But many cheap supplements are not standardised.

Matcha green tea as a drink is the best – containing up to 80 times the EGCG levels of ordinary green tea.

Green tea and reduced cancer risk

Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsWe’ve already seen that green tea has both anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects.

Oxidative damage to DNA is an initiator of cancer. Inflammation also actually causes some cancers and creates an internal environment where other cancers are more likely to spread.

Prostate cancer

The American Association of Cancer Research have concluded that:

“The polyphenols present in green tea help prevent the spread of prostate cancer by targeting molecular pathways that shut down the proliferation and spread of tumour cells, as well as inhibiting the growth of tumour nurturing blood vessels”.

(Soy isoflavones also discourage the growth of the blood vessels that feed tumours).

Breast cancer

But it’s not only the reduction in prostate cancer that means green tea and green tea supplements should feature in your overall health programme. Breastcancer.org advise that:

“In laboratory and animal studies, EGCG has been shown to limit the growth of breast cancer cells and other types of cancer cells. One study of Asian-American women found that those who drank more green tea were less likely to develop breast cancer.”

There is even evidence that EGCG, in addition to acting an anti-tumour agent, also helps modulate tumour cell response during chemotherapy.

Green tea and improved heart health

Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsAn analysis in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2014 of 25 randomised controlled trials concluded that long-term green tea intake significantly improved blood pressure.

“After 12 weeks of drinking tea, blood pressure was lower by 2.6 mmHg systolic and 2.2 mmHg diastolic.

“The present findings suggest that long-term (over 12 weeks) ingestion of tea could result in a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP.”

Time Magazine concluded that:

“Reducing systolic blood pressure by 2.6 mmHg ‘would be expected to reduce stroke risk by 8 percent, coronary artery disease mortality by 5 percent and all-cause mortality by 4 percent at a population level…”

It appears that these heart health benefits are largely due to the ability of green tea to relax blood vessels called endothelial cells, which line the body’s circulatory system. This effect is rapid – occurring in as little as 30 minutes from consumption. This also has the effect of helping protect against blood clots.

Green tea and improved brain function

Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsGreen tea also includes both caffeine and an amino acid called L-theanine. In turn, L-theanine increases the activity of a neurotransmitter called GABA. The result of this sequence is to increase levels of dopamine in the brain which reduces anxiety, whilst simultaneously increasing alertness.

Green tea and weight control – maybe

Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsResults of a study reported in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition showed that 90mg of a green tea supplement taken 3 times a day appears to exert a thermogenic effect – ie. it increases metabolism and energy expenditure.

So green tea could be helpful as part of a weight control programme, but it is unlikely to work on its own unless there is an accompanying reduction in calories.

Indeed, a subsequent double-blind trial reported in Clinical Nutrition showed no real effect on body weight – BUT it did confirm that the group taking green tea supplements had a:

  • significant reduction in LDL-cholesterol and triglyceride
  • marked increase in the level of HDL-cholesterol (the ‘good cholesterol), and adiponectin. (Adiponectin is a hormone that helps regulate glucose levels.)

Conclusions

Green tea contains an unusually wide array of vitamins and minerals in addition to its catechins – including vitamins A, C, D, E, B5 and K, and minerals such as manganese, zinc, chromium and selenium.

You may like to squeeze a little lemon juice into your cup of green tea – or buy green-tea-with-lemon. Researchers have shown that vitamin C may increase the bioavailability of catechins by more than 500%!

Green tea supplements

Once again, however, neither green tea nor green tea supplements on their own are the only or ideal health protective nutrients. NutriShield Premium is a daily comprehensive supplement containing 43 nutrients including 150mg of standardised polyphenols with 75mg of EGCG and 37.5mg of other catechins, designed by Dr Paul Clayton, former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine.

 


If you enjoyed this article, please share it with family and friends. You can follow us on Facebook or Twitter for daily headline health tweets.


Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals And register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.


Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthGreen tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of 43 essential nutrients including standardised green tea extract, polyphenols and flavonoids from fruits, vegetables and other plants, Omega 3, betaine and soy isoflavones. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.


Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores or from Uni-Vite Healthcare here.

A free summary report and the opportunity to read the book online is available here.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook  incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Green tea definitive guide to super antioxidant NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


REFERENCES

Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review Sabu M Chacko, Chin Med. 2010; 5: 13. Published online 2010 Apr 6. doi:  1186/1749-8546-5-13

Molecular understanding of Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Eng QY, Thanikachalam PV, Ramamurthy S. J Ethnopharmacol.2018 Jan 10;210:296-310. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.08.035. Epub 2017 Aug 31

Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans.  Abdul G Dulloo. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 70, Issue 6, 1 December 1999

Effect of green tea extract on obese women: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Chung-Hua et al: Clinical Nutrition; Volume 27, Issue 3, June 2008, Pages 363-370

Green tea catechin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): mechanisms, perspectives and clinical applications. Singh BN, Shankar S, Srivastava RK. Biochem Pharmacol. 2011 Dec 15;82(12):1807-21. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2011.07.093. Epub 2011 Jul 30.

Effects of tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Gang Liu. British Journal of Nutrition; Volume 112, 14 October 2014 , pp. 1043-1054

Benefits Of Green Tea In Reducing An Important Risk Factor For Heart Disease; European Society of Cardiology

L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state. Nobre AC, Rao A, Owen GN. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:167-8.