Avoid vision loss after 50

Clinical trials support use of food supplements

Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

To realise that you are beginning to lose your sight is a truly frightening experience.

A condition called macular degeneration is the leading cause of loss of vision. And because it occurs most often after the age of 60, it’s usually referred to as Age-related Macular Degeneration – or AMD.

But two peer-reviewed clinical trials on natural food supplements bring real hope. They show that the risks of developing AMD can be very substantially reduced and that the progress of the disease can be slowed or even halted.

How AMD develops

Your macula is part of your retina – the area in the back of your eye that turns images into signals which go to your brain. It lets you see small details clearly. When the macula starts to break down, you begin to have difficulty seeing detail.

As the disease gets worse, you lose your central vision. That makes it a problem to drive, read or make out faces clearly.

There are two forms of Macular Degeneration – dry and wet. Most people (over 85%) have what is called “dry” macular degeneration, which develops slowly.


Dry AMD develops through lack of nutrients and the development of what are called drusen in your retina. These are small white or yellow fatty deposits largely consisting of cholesterol.  They cause the retina to begin to break down.

There is a genetic component, but anyone can succumb because inflammation and oxidative (free radical) damage to tissues, nerves and photoreceptor cells are the ultimate drivers of dry AMD.


With the “wet” version, abnormal leaky blood vessels damage your macula and change the shape of your retina. While it’s less common, the wet type of macular degeneration is the cause of 90% of all vision loss leading to legal blindness. Often the ‘wet’ type follows the development of the ‘dry’ type.

Risk factors for AMD

A 2014 Lancet article estimates the risk of AMD is about 2% if you are under the age of 50, but this rises to almost 20% for people over the age of 75. About 65% of AMD cases occur in women and 35% in men but this is partly as women live longer.

According to the National Eye Institute, risk factors include smoking, a poor highly processed diet, lack of exercise, high blood pressure, a low intake of anti-oxidants and overweight or obesity.

The Lancet adds fluctuating blood sugar levels and high levels of inflammation and oxidative (free radical) damage as risk factors. Cardiovascular disease and diabetes are frequently co-existing diseases – which is logical because the driver behind these illnesses is also inflammation and free radical damage.

Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Without macular degeneration

Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

With macular degeneration, central vision is compromised

The AREDS studies confirm AMD risk can be cut with supplements

Two studies confirm that the risk of AMD can be cut substantially through taking food supplements. They are called AREDS 1 and AREDs 2. ARED stands for Age Related Eye Disease Study. Both studies were conducted by the National Eye Institute – a part of the US Government’s National Institutes of Health.

AREDS1 reported in 2001 and since the results were good, it was followed by AREDS2 which started in 2006 and ran 5 years. Its purpose was to see if an improved nutritional formula would work even better.

The supplements the studies used were both designed as high anti-oxidant formulae. They include the carotenoids lutein, beta carotene and zeaxanthin, plus high dose vitamin C and a small number of selected minerals.

AREDS 1 Formula
Nutrient per day
Vitamin C 500mg
Vitamin E 400 IU
Zinc 80mg
Copper 2mg
Beta carotene 15mg
AREDS 2 Formula
Nutrient per day
Vitamin C 500mg
Vitamin E 400 IU
Zinc 80mg
Copper 2mg
Lutein 10mg
Zeaxanthin 2mg

The results of AREDS 2 showed long lasting benefits with a very significant – 32% – lower risk of advanced AMD.

Improving the results of supplementation even further

Can we even improve on these results? We can. The basis is a high anti-oxidant and a high anti-inflammatory diet and supplement. Here are 5 specific ways.

  1. Boost fish oil consumption

    A study at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and another at the University of Sydney showed that men over 50 with the highest levels of oily fish consumption were 45 percent less likely to have AMD than those who ate the least amount of fish. High consumption was over two servings weekly; low consumption was less than one serving per week. So make salmon, herrings and sardines a frequent choice and/or add an Omega 3 supplement.

  2. Eat nuts, green vegetables and fruit daily

    A 2004 study at Harvard Medical School showed that people who ate three or more servings of fruit daily had a substantially lower risk of wet or advanced AMD. Blueberries, bilberries, blackcurrants and cherries are especially beneficial since they contain what are called polyphenols. Polyphenols are a large class of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds that fruits and vegetables have evolved to protect themselves – and when we eat those plants we get the same protective benefit too.

    In the case of berry fruits, the polyphenols are called anthocyanins – and anthocyanins give the berries their dark colouring and are powerful anti-oxidants.

    A further study from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary reported that people who consumed the most vegetables rich in carotenoids (like lutein, lycopene and zeaxanthin) had a 43 percent lower risk of AMD than those who ate the least. Carotenoid-rich foods include spinach, kale and leafy green vegetables.

  3. Limit your intake of sugar and refined carbohydrates

    Diets high in refined carbohydrates increase the risk of AMD, because they have a high glycemic index, causing a rapid increase in blood sugar and insulin release. In addition, sugars promote what is called glycation – where sugar molecules bond to proteins and cause ‘cross linking’ in body tissues. This cross linking is a little like wires becoming tangled and results in the general stiffening of tissues – including both small blood vessels and arteries.This not only damages eyes and the heart, but is a major cause of skin ageing.

  4. Exercise regularly

    According to a study in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, which monitored 4,000 people for 15 years, people who led an active lifestyle were 70 percent less likely to have AMD develop during the follow-up period. ‘Active’ was defined as walking at least two miles a day for 3 days a week.

  5. Wear sunglasses with UV and blue light protection

    A major recent study found that people who consumed too few antioxidants, and had overexposure to blue light, were four times more likely to develop advanced or wet AMD.

Other risk reduction actions

  • Increase the font size and contrast on your computer, which reduces eye strain.
  • Keep hydrated. It helps clears any irritants out of your eyes.
  • A possible ‘off label’ drug treatment for AMD is Avastan. Avastan is a drug used in cancer therapy. It works by inhibiting the supply of new blood vessels feeding a tumour – essentially starving the cancer of the nutrients it needs to grow. Ophthalmologists can use Avastan to prevent the abnormal growth of cells involved in especially wet AMD. There is evidence that soy isoflavones too at a level of about 40mg a day can limit the supply of new blood vessels.

Protect your eyesight – but not in isolation from the rest of your body

If you are concerned that you are developing macular degeneration, or if you are trying to halt its progression, it’s natural to concentrate on solving this one problem.

But we now know that inflammation and free radical damage are the key drivers of this disease. And these twin threats don’t just damage your eyes. They are the central cause of almost all so-called ‘age related’ disease.

We say ‘so-called’ because it is not the simple advance of years – it is the accumulation of free radical damage and chronic inflammation that underlies loss of vision, alongside heart disease, stroke, diabetes, arthritis and even some cancers.

We have seen that official studies show that the AREDS supplements have a significant preventative effect on eye health – which, incidentally, gives a lie to those who say health supplements are a waste of money.

But we can go further. By adding some of the most powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds identified in fruits and vegetables, plus Omega 3, we can create a supplement that helps protect – not just your vision – but your whole body.

Dr Paul Clayton, the former Chair of the Forum on Food and Health at the Royal Society of Medicine, proposed just such a supplement in his best-selling book Health Defence. It has been turned into an actual supplement called Nutrishield.

Below is the comparison between the AREDS formulae and NutriShield. NutriShield adds a much wider range of anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients, plus vitamins and minerals at what are judged to be optimum levels, rather than just RDA levels.

Supplements against AMD

Nutrient AREDS1/2
Vitamin C (A1&A2) 500 mg 500 mg
Vitamin E (A1&A2) 400 IU 109 IU
Zinc (A1&A2) 80 mg 10 mg
Copper (A1&A2) 2 mg 1 mg
Beta carotene (A1) 15 mg 7 mg
Lutein (A2) 10 mg 6 mg
Zeaxanthin (A2) 2 mg 42 mcg
Lycopene 5 mg Anti-cancer carotenoid
Omega 3
fish oil
1,000 mg Anti-inflammatory
Green Tea 150 mg Anti-inflammatory
Grapeseed 50 mg Anti-inflammatory
Bilberry 2 mg Anti-oxidant
Curcumin 250 mg Anti-inflammatory
Ascophyllum nodosum
50 mg Improves omega-3 effects
Soy isoflavones 40 mg Anti-cancer
Betaine 450 mg Reduced heart disease risk
Co-Enzyme Q10 30 mg Helps heart health
Vitamin D3 800 IU Vital for immune function
All other vitamins and minerals at optimum levels VITAMINS A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B7 B9 B12 K1 K2
MINERALS Magnesium Calcium Selenium Chromium Manganese Iodine Molybdenum
Glucosamine 500 mg Cartilage builder but needs
vits D and K alongside
(black pepper)
2.5 mg Boosts curcumin absorption


Although there is no cure, as yet, for Age-related Macular Degeneration, there is very good evidence that its progression can be slowed and even halted.

The way is through improved diet and a supplement that is specifically designed to counteract oxidation and inflammation. Because these are the drivers, not only of AMD, but almost all other age-related illnesses.

You can find NutriShield at

NOTE: We created this article in response to a question from a customer. As a reader of this blog, if you have a health question, we are always pleased to try to help.

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Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsAvoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsAvoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsAnd register now for a free regular e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.

Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthAvoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.

Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from bookstores. Or read a summary report here FREE simply by registering your email address.


See online here for delicious recipes from the Health Defence Cookbook incorporating healthy foods featuring in a Mediterranean Diet. Avoid vision loss after 50 NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals


AREDS2 Research Group. “Lutein/Zeaxanthin and Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial.” JAMA, published online May 5, 2013.

AREDS2 Research Group. “Lutein/Zeaxanthin for the Treatment of Age-Related Cataract.” JAMA Ophthalmology, published online May 5, 2013.

Chew et al. “Long-Term Effects of Vitamins C, E, Beta-Carotene and Zinc on Age-Related Macular Degeneration.” Ophthalmology, published online April 11, 2013.

Global prevalence of age-related macular degeneration and disease burden projection for 2020 and 2040: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Wan Ling Wong et al. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Feb;2(2):e106-16.

Smoking and age related macular degeneration: the number of pack years of cigarette smoking is a major determinant of risk for both geographic atrophy and choroidal neovascularisation. J C Khan et al. Br J Ophthalmol 90(1); 2006 Jan

An Update on the Health Effects of Tomato Lycopene Erica N. Story, Rachel E. Kopec, Steven J. Schwartz and G. Keith Harris. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2010; 1: 10.1146/



Blood pressure reduction naturally and quickly

Your risk of hypertension – high blood pressure – increases as you get older. Everybody’s does.

For one in three people in the UK and USA, that risk turns into actual hypertension and another 25% have pre-hypertension or borderline high blood pressure. So it’s a threat that over half of people need to act on as they get older.

Indeed by age 60 almost 2 out of 3 people have some form of elevated blood pressure.

Blood pressure reduction naturally and quickly NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals

The problem is that there very rarely any symptoms of high blood pressure; consequently many sufferers are unaware of the threat.

So for too many people the first sign that something is wrong, and they have untreated hypertension, is a heart attack or stroke! In fact high blood pressure is the main risk factor for stroke, which is not only a top 5 killer but a major cause of disability.

Unfortunately that’s not all. Because, in addition to the risk of stroke and heart disease, chronic hypertension increases the risk, in both sexes, of dementia, sexual dysfunction, kidney disease and impaired vision.

The good news, however, is that hypertension is both easy to diagnose and treat, which must always be done under a physician’s guidance. So the advice here is complementary to working with your doctor.

There are drugs that can lower blood pressure, but this article concentrates on simple, natural lifestyle modifications that include diet and nutrition. The added benefit of these actions is that they will also improve your overall health.

How high blood pressure threatens your health


Some 66% of stroke victims have blood pressure readings in excess of 160/95 mm Hg. It happens in two ways.

1. Aneurysm

Firstly, hypertension can weaken the walls of the artery and cause the wall to bulge out – an aneurysm. If this aneurysm ruptures in a brain artery, the result can be bleeding in the brain, causing pressure and damage to the brain. Alternatively, the aneurysm can cut off the supply of blood, and therefore oxygen, to the brain.

2. Atherosclerosis

Secondly, hypertension also accelerates the build-up of sludgy plaque within the walls of the arteries – atherosclerosis. This narrows the artery and blood clots are more likely to form on the uneven surface of the artery wall, blocking the blood flow to the brain.

Either way there is serious and potentially fatal brain damage.

Multiple mini-strokes leading to dementia

Unfortunately, there is an even more insidious way the brain can be damaged by chronic hypertension. Unchecked, the lack of oxygen caused by blockages can lead to a series of small, sometimes even unnoticed strokes.

But these mini-strokes – called infarcts – cause damage to brain tissue and the accumulation of this damage is called multi-infarct dementia. That shows up as confusion and short-term memory loss.


Continuous (known as “chronic”) high blood pressure damages the capillaries that carry blood to the retina. The capillaries thicken, become narrower, and can eventually leak or become blocked, leading to visual impairment or even blindness.


We’ve seen that hypertension damages blood vessels. In the case of the kidneys, this can lead to your kidneys being unable to remove wastes and fluids from your body. In a vicious circle, the fluid retention then raises blood pressure even further – with a possible end result of kidney failure.


Blood pressure reduction naturally and quickly NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsJust as narrowing of the arteries or a blockage leading to the brain can cause a stroke, so the same chain of events in the arteries leading to the heart can cause coronary heart disease and potentially a heart attack, which is often but not always preceded by chest pain.


If the brain is receiving less blood – and therefore less oxygen – the result, as we have seen, can be diminished cognitive function.

But brain cells are also covered by a fatty coating called a myelin sheath. If the brain is receiving fewer nutrients because of hypertension, and particularly less anti-oxidants, the myelin sheath can become vulnerable to oxidation – free radical damage.

Furthermore,  if the brain is not receiving enough anti-inflammatory nutrients, it can become inflamed.

Current research shows that both free radical damage and chronic inflammation are key drivers of dementia.


Hypertension leads to reduced arterial elasticity and impaired blood flow and this reduced blood flow in turn can, and often does, lead to erectile dysfunction in men and reduced arousal in women.

The Good News! High blood pressure can be reduced

Fortunately all these risks and threats can be very significantly reduced in quite simple ways. But to understand how – let’s look at what causes hypertension and how you measure it.

The causes of high blood pressure

Blood pressure is the amount of force that the heart exerts to pump your blood through many miles of your circulatory system. (If you laid all your arteries, veins and capillaries end to end they would stretch for almost 100,000 kilometres!)  That pressure is needed to deliver the oxygen and nutrients to body cells necessary for metabolism and to remove waste products.

As your heart contracts, it pumps blood into the arteries and blood pressure increases. That peak pressure is assessed by the systolic measurement. As it relaxes, the blood flows back from the veins into the heart and blood pressure drops – the lower value is the diastolic measurement.

This pattern happens about 100,000 times a day, almost 40 million times a year. So by the time you are 50, your heart has beaten almost 2 trillion times. And a bit of TLC is in order!

Everyday factors that determine temporary changes in blood pressure include exercise and stress. The body needs more oxygen and glucose for your muscles during exercise and in response your heart rate increases to deliver them, resulting in a temporary increase in blood pressure. There is a similar sequence when you are stressed.

In addition, your kidneys can affect the amount of blood in circulation by increasing or reducing the rate at which sodium is removed from the body. The more blood in circulation, the higher your blood pressure.

For this and everyday variations to happen over decades without damage, your small arteries need to be flexible enough to widen to accommodate the extra flow. So the elasticity of your arteries is a key element in ensuring a normal blood pressure.


Factor 1: Overweight

Being overweight forces the heart to pump harder and therefore increases blood pressure. Being overweight can also disrupt your breathing while you are asleep, which again increases blood pressure. A male waist measurement of 102cm/40″ or over and a female waist over 86cm/34″ is a risk factor.

Factor 2: Too much salt (sodium)

Excess intake of sodium – salt – causes arteries to constrict, therefore narrowing vascular channels and increasing blood pressure. It also encourages the body to retain fluid and the extra volume of blood further increases blood pressure. As so many processed foods have high levels of salt, this is a significant risk factor.

Factor 3: Too little potassium

Potassium helps counterbalance the effect of sodium. For sources of potassium see later.

Factor 4: Alcohol

The indications are that over two glasses of wine a day – or alcohol equivalents – increase hypertension risk. One glass, however, as a relaxant, seems to have the opposite effect. Older people metabolise alcohol less well and should reduce this guideline amount.

Factor 5: Lack of physical activity

Inactivity results in lower levels of nitrous oxide in the blood, which would otherwise help the arteries to dilate. Low activity levels also reduce the elasticity of blood vessels.


Factor 6: Age

As we have seen, the risk of high blood pressure rises with age until almost 60% of people over 60 have hypertension.

Factor 7: Gender

Women are more prone to pre-hypertension than men.
Men are at a 25% higher risk of having a stroke and at a younger age compared to women. However, as women live longer, there are more total incidences of stroke in women.

Factor 8: Genetics, including Race

There is a tendency for high blood pressure to run in families. An African or Caribbean origin predicts a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Black people are twice as likely to have a stroke and at a younger age than white people.

Factor 9: Medications and Medical Conditions

There are several medications that raise blood pressure, including corticosteroids, lithium, some immune-suppressors, Cox-2 inhibitors (pain relievers like ibuprofen), antacids and certain anti-depressants.

Diabetes and high cholesterol are linked to hypertension.

What about caffeine in coffee or other drinks?  Although caffeine does cause a short term rise in blood pressure, the results of a 12-year study on over 100,000 women found no apparent link to long term hypertension. However, it would be wise to limit coffee intake to 4 cups a day, especially as you get older.

And the pill?  The oral contraceptive pill does raise the risk of hypertension slightly, but low dose oestrogen pills raise it less.

What is normal blood pressure?

Blood pressure reduction naturally and quickly NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsThe latest medical research makes the important point that pre-hypertension also carries high risk. People with pre-hypertension have double the risk of developing full hypertension, and a 2010 review in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology calculated that some 30 million people had died prematurely while suffering pre-hypertension in the decade 2000 to 2010.

There is debate about when normal turns to pre-hypertension and then to full high blood pressure.

A reading of up to 120/80 (spoken as “120 over 80”) is generally viewed as reasonable, but this chart represents the latest science. It is the guideline issued by US The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute following the Framingham long term study where one quarter of over-65-year-old people in the range of 120 -130 systolic and 80-84 diastolic went on to develop full hypertension with all the attendant risks.

Systolic mm Hg Diastolic mm Hg
Normal BP range Under 120 Under 80
Pre-Hypertension 120 – 139 80 – 89
Stage 1 Hypertension 140 – 159 90 – 99
Stage 2 Hypertension 160 + 100 +

You may find you have a condition known as Isolated Systolic Hypertension where systolic BP is above 140 but diastolic is less than 90. In fact this is very common in people over 60. This is associated with reduced elasticity of arteries. But is still a health threat, as it can still lead to the same dangers as full hypertension.

For younger people – 50 and below – the more common condition is Isolated Diastolic Hypertension. This is when the diastolic reading is above 90 mm Hg. It elevates the risk of heart attack, stroke and kidney failure.

Although the first check should be done at the doctor’s, the new digital blood pressure monitors are a good way to keep a check on your own situation. But don’t be obsessive and always take two measurements about 2 minutes apart and average them, as BP can vary quickly. If your doctor is concerned she may advise an ambulatory test, where you are loaned and wear a BP monitor for a whole day.

How to lower blood pressure naturally

The following actions are listed in order of their impact on reducing blood pressure short and long term. The top two are linked because the eating plan will lead to a healthy weight loss.

Lose weight if needed. Research shows that every 10kg weight reduction can lead to a reduction in systolic BP of approximately 10mm Hg.

Eat a Mediterranean/anti-inflammatory diet. This will not only help you to reduce blood pressure and increase the elasticity of arterial walls, but will reduce inflammation – which is the underlying cause of most serious age-related diseases.There is a simple but effective plan at This plan is very similar to the American DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet developed by the National Institutes of Health. Studies show that this plan, on average, dropped BP levels by 11/6 mm Hg. It’s a tasty diet rich in fruit and vegetables, fish, nuts, whole grains, olive oil and lean meat.

Increase activity to the equivalent of at least 5 x 30 minutes of brisk walking a week. Exercise has multiple benefits that include increasing the level of nitric oxide in the blood, which in turn causes the artery walls to relax, which then leads to a lower blood pressure. Supplements such as Co-Enzyme Q10 and the procyanidins in eg. grapeseed extract can also help increase nitric oxide levels.

Reduce salt by an average of half a teaspoon a day. In practice this means being very sparing with the salt shaker and cutting back on processed foods which are high in salt content – because convenience food manufacturers have no responsibility to look after your health.Soy sauce, pasta sauces, anchovies, ham, bacon, French fries, peanuts and pizza are all high salt/sodium foods. Flavourings like garlic, black pepper, celery seed, ginger, thyme, allspice and turmeric bring out the flavour of food and not only reduce the need for salt, but all have positive health effects of their own.

Increase potassium intake. There are low-sodium salt substitutes with more potassium than sodium. This not only reduces sodium intake, it increases your potassium intake and increased potassium intake correlates with a 24% lower stroke risk. Potassium-rich foods include mushrooms, citrus foods, salmon, spinach, avocado, bananas and raisins.Note, however, that people with kidney problems, or who are taking ACE inhibitors or NSAID drugs should not increase their potassium intake without consulting their doctors.

Increase magnesium intake. As we get older, the body absorbs dietary magnesium less efficiently, as it does most nutrients. Magnesium-rich foods include nuts, seeds, fish, green vegetables and whole grains.

Increase polyphenols. A study in the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics showed that increasing polyphenols – in this case using a cup a day of blueberries – reduced blood pressure by an average of 7/5 mm Hg. A further study in the America Society for Nutritional Sciences showed that green tea polyphenols also reduce blood pressure.Polyphenols along with Omega 3 help improve the elasticity of arteries. The polyphenols in dark chocolate do the same.

Increase Omega 3. Not only does an increased Omega 3 intake reduce damaging internal inflammation, but it helps to reduce BP levels.

Take a comprehensive nutritional supplement. Finally the proposed anti-inflammatory diet at does also suggest a comprehensive nutritional supplement.This will ensure you have optimum daily levels of Omega 3, grapeseed, green tea and bilberry polyphenols, CoQ10, curcumin, carotenoids like beta carotene, lutein and lycopene, and a full range of vitamins and minerals that includes vitamin D3 and K2 and magnesium.

The combination has been designed to provide a protective and significant daily level of anti- inflammatory and anti-oxidants nutrients and to help improve the elasticity of vascular walls.


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Blood pressure reduction naturally and quickly NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsAnd register now for a free e-newsletter on the latest in nutrition and health research.

You can follow us on or for daily headline health tweets.

Dr Paul Clayton designed NutriShield as a comprehensive healthBlood pressure reduction naturally and quickly NutriShield Multi Vitamins and Minerals supplement with OPTIMUM levels of essential nutrients, including ALL those mentioned above. See more detail elsewhere on this site or click on the button.

Blood pressure reduction naturally and quickly NutriShield Multi Vitamins and MineralsDr Paul Clayton’s best-selling book Health Defence is available from most good bookstores. See the website for excerpts and links to buy direct from the publisher.